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Title: The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers

Abstract

The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description 17 of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Fermilab
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1335110
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-CONF-16-501-CMS-E
1502550
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
JINST
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 01; Conference: Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics, Karlsruhe, Germany, 09/26-10/30/2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Strobbe, N. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/C01080.
Strobbe, N. The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/C01080.
Strobbe, N. 2017. "The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/C01080. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1335110.
@article{osti_1335110,
title = {The upgrade of the CMS hadron calorimeter with silicon photomultipliers},
author = {Strobbe, N.},
abstractNote = {The upgrade of the hadron calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently underway. The endcap sections will be upgraded in the winter of 2016–2017 and the barrel sections during the second LHC long shutdown in 2019. The existing photosensors will be replaced with about 16 000 new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), resulting in the first large installation of SiPMs in a radiation environment. All associated front-end electronics will also be upgraded. This paper discusses the motivation for the upgrade and provides a description 17 of the new system, including the SiPMs with associated control electronics and the front-end readout cards.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/C01080},
journal = {JINST},
number = 01,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 1
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • The authors present an overview of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. The structure of the upgrade calorimeter and the design of ht optical readout system is discussed. They describe the production of scintillating tile/fiber multi-tile assemblies (megatiles) and present the quality control results of megatiles produced for the CDF End Plug Upgrade Hadron Calorimeter. The sample of megatiles presented in this analysis corresponds to approximately 16,500 individual tile/fiber assemblies. They discuss the quality control requirements and present the distributions of the quantities measure during the QC process. The various contributions to the tile-to-tile light yield variations are isolated andmore » discussed.« less
  • We report on the performance of the CDF End Plug Hadron Calorimeter in a test beam. The sampling calorimeter is constructed using 2 inch iron absorber plates and scintillator planes with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The linearity and energy resolution of the calorimeter response to pions, and the transverse uniformity of the response to muons and pions are presented. The parameter e/h, representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to hadronic response, is extracted from the data.
  • We present a plan for upgrading the CMS HCAL photodetectors with Silicon Photomultipliers (SIPM).
  • Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will bemore » added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeter’s performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ΔE/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and cost. Additional GSIM simulations will be undertaken to verify that the four-module version has acceptable π° mass reconstruction and to continue Research and Development (R&D) analysis on the preshower calorimeter.« less
  • A systematic test of various characteristics, such as gain, dark current, maximum peak current, stability and relative quantum efficiency, has been made to evaluate about 2,000 photomultiplier tubes for the upgraded CDF Endplug calorimeters. The phototubes are Hamamatsu R4125,19mm diameter with green-extended photocathode. In this report we discuss the distribution of the major characteristics measured and the failure mode. Comparisons between independent measurements made on some of the characteristics are used to evaluate the quality of the measurement itself.