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Title: A measurement of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by galaxy clusters using data from the south pole telescope

Abstract

Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters with CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects on our analysis of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. It is estimated that this bias to lower cluster mass is roughly 0.85σ in units of the statistical error bar, although this estimate should be viewed as an upper limit. We apply our maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.1σ. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: $${M}_{200,\mathrm{lens}}={0.83}_{-0.37}^{+0.38}\;{M}_{200,\mathrm{SZ}}$$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1335102
Report Number(s):
SLAC-PUB-16730
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; arXiv:1412.7521
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 806; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astrophysics; ASTRO

Citation Formats

Baxter, E. J., Keisler, R., Dodelson, S., Aird, K. A., Allen, S. W., Ashby, M. L. N., Bautz, M., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Bocquet, S., Brodwin, M., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiu, I., Cho, H-M., Clocchiatti, A., Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Foley, R. J., Forman, W. R., George, E. M., Gladders, M. D., Gonzalez, A. H., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N. L., Hennig, C., Hoekstra, H., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Jones, C., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Leitch, E. M., Liu, J., Lueker, M., Luong-Van, D., Mantz, A., Marrone, D. P., McDonald, M., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Millea, M., Mocanu, L. M., Murray, S. S., Padin, S., Pryke, C., Reichardt, C. L., Rest, A., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Saro, A., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Song, J., Spieler, H. G., Stalder, B., Stanford, S. A., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., van Engelen, A., Vanderlinde, K., Vieira, J. D., Vikhlinin, A., Williamson, R., Zahn, O., and Zenteno, A. A measurement of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by galaxy clusters using data from the south pole telescope. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/247.
Baxter, E. J., Keisler, R., Dodelson, S., Aird, K. A., Allen, S. W., Ashby, M. L. N., Bautz, M., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Bocquet, S., Brodwin, M., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiu, I., Cho, H-M., Clocchiatti, A., Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Foley, R. J., Forman, W. R., George, E. M., Gladders, M. D., Gonzalez, A. H., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N. L., Hennig, C., Hoekstra, H., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Jones, C., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Leitch, E. M., Liu, J., Lueker, M., Luong-Van, D., Mantz, A., Marrone, D. P., McDonald, M., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Millea, M., Mocanu, L. M., Murray, S. S., Padin, S., Pryke, C., Reichardt, C. L., Rest, A., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Saro, A., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Song, J., Spieler, H. G., Stalder, B., Stanford, S. A., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., van Engelen, A., Vanderlinde, K., Vieira, J. D., Vikhlinin, A., Williamson, R., Zahn, O., & Zenteno, A. A measurement of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by galaxy clusters using data from the south pole telescope. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/247.
Baxter, E. J., Keisler, R., Dodelson, S., Aird, K. A., Allen, S. W., Ashby, M. L. N., Bautz, M., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Bocquet, S., Brodwin, M., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Chiu, I., Cho, H-M., Clocchiatti, A., Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Foley, R. J., Forman, W. R., George, E. M., Gladders, M. D., Gonzalez, A. H., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N. L., Hennig, C., Hoekstra, H., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hou, Z., Hrubes, J. D., Jones, C., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Leitch, E. M., Liu, J., Lueker, M., Luong-Van, D., Mantz, A., Marrone, D. P., McDonald, M., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Millea, M., Mocanu, L. M., Murray, S. S., Padin, S., Pryke, C., Reichardt, C. L., Rest, A., Ruhl, J. E., Saliwanchik, B. R., Saro, A., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Song, J., Spieler, H. G., Stalder, B., Stanford, S. A., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., van Engelen, A., Vanderlinde, K., Vieira, J. D., Vikhlinin, A., Williamson, R., Zahn, O., and Zenteno, A. Sat . "A measurement of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by galaxy clusters using data from the south pole telescope". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/247. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1335102.
@article{osti_1335102,
title = {A measurement of gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by galaxy clusters using data from the south pole telescope},
author = {Baxter, E. J. and Keisler, R. and Dodelson, S. and Aird, K. A. and Allen, S. W. and Ashby, M. L. N. and Bautz, M. and Bayliss, M. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Bocquet, S. and Brodwin, M. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chang, C. L. and Chiu, I. and Cho, H-M. and Clocchiatti, A. and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and Desai, S. and Dietrich, J. P. and de Haan, T. and Dobbs, M. A. and Foley, R. J. and Forman, W. R. and George, E. M. and Gladders, M. D. and Gonzalez, A. H. and Halverson, N. W. and Harrington, N. L. and Hennig, C. and Hoekstra, H. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hou, Z. and Hrubes, J. D. and Jones, C. and Knox, L. and Lee, A. T. and Leitch, E. M. and Liu, J. and Lueker, M. and Luong-Van, D. and Mantz, A. and Marrone, D. P. and McDonald, M. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Millea, M. and Mocanu, L. M. and Murray, S. S. and Padin, S. and Pryke, C. and Reichardt, C. L. and Rest, A. and Ruhl, J. E. and Saliwanchik, B. R. and Saro, A. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Shirokoff, E. and Song, J. and Spieler, H. G. and Stalder, B. and Stanford, S. A. and Staniszewski, Z. and Stark, A. A. and Story, K. T. and van Engelen, A. and Vanderlinde, K. and Vieira, J. D. and Vikhlinin, A. and Williamson, R. and Zahn, O. and Zenteno, A.},
abstractNote = {Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters with CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects on our analysis of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. It is estimated that this bias to lower cluster mass is roughly 0.85σ in units of the statistical error bar, although this estimate should be viewed as an upper limit. We apply our maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.1σ. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: ${M}_{200,\mathrm{lens}}={0.83}_{-0.37}^{+0.38}\;{M}_{200,\mathrm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/247},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 2,
volume = 806,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {6}
}