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Title: Efficient Near-Infrared-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Enabling Direct Comparison of 4-Terminal and Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Cells

Abstract

Combining market-proven silicon solar cell technology with an efficient wide band gap top cell into a tandem device is an attractive approach to reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. For this, perovskite solar cells are promising high-efficiency top cell candidates, but their typical device size (<0.2 cm 2), is still far from standard industrial sizes. Here, we present a 1 cm 2 near-infrared transparent perovskite solar cell with 14.5% steadystate efficiency, as compared to 16.4% on 0.25 cm 2. By mechanically stacking these cells with silicon heterojunction cells, we experimentally demonstrate a 4-terminal tandem measurement with a steady-state efficiency of 25.2%, with a 0.25 cm 2 top cell. The developed top cell processing methods enable the fabrication of a 20.5% efficient and 1.43 cm 2 large monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cell, featuring a rear-side textured bottom cell to increase its near-infrared spectral response. Finally, we compare both tandem configurations to identify efficiency-limiting factors and discuss the potential for further performance improvement.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Neuchatel (Switzerland). Inst. of Microengineering (IMT) and Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Lab.
  2. Swiss Center for Electronics and Microtechnology (CSEM), Neuchatel (Switzerland). PV-Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S); Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF); Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); Competence Center Energy and Mobility (CCEM); European Union (EU)
OSTI Identifier:
1334826
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1437656
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0006335; SI/501072-01; CONNECT-PV; 653296
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Energy Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2380-8195
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Werner, Jeremie, Barraud, Loris, Walter, Arnaud, Brauninger, Matthias, Sahli, Florent, Sacchetto, Davide, Tetreault, Nicolas, Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand, Moon, Soo-Jin, Allebe, Christophe, Despeisse, Matthieu, Nicolay, Sylvain, De Wolf, Stefaan, Niesen, Bjoern, and Ballif, Christophe. Efficient Near-Infrared-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Enabling Direct Comparison of 4-Terminal and Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Cells. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00254.
Werner, Jeremie, Barraud, Loris, Walter, Arnaud, Brauninger, Matthias, Sahli, Florent, Sacchetto, Davide, Tetreault, Nicolas, Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand, Moon, Soo-Jin, Allebe, Christophe, Despeisse, Matthieu, Nicolay, Sylvain, De Wolf, Stefaan, Niesen, Bjoern, & Ballif, Christophe. Efficient Near-Infrared-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Enabling Direct Comparison of 4-Terminal and Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Cells. United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00254.
Werner, Jeremie, Barraud, Loris, Walter, Arnaud, Brauninger, Matthias, Sahli, Florent, Sacchetto, Davide, Tetreault, Nicolas, Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand, Moon, Soo-Jin, Allebe, Christophe, Despeisse, Matthieu, Nicolay, Sylvain, De Wolf, Stefaan, Niesen, Bjoern, and Ballif, Christophe. Sat . "Efficient Near-Infrared-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Enabling Direct Comparison of 4-Terminal and Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Cells". United States. doi:10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00254.
@article{osti_1334826,
title = {Efficient Near-Infrared-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Enabling Direct Comparison of 4-Terminal and Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Cells},
author = {Werner, Jeremie and Barraud, Loris and Walter, Arnaud and Brauninger, Matthias and Sahli, Florent and Sacchetto, Davide and Tetreault, Nicolas and Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand and Moon, Soo-Jin and Allebe, Christophe and Despeisse, Matthieu and Nicolay, Sylvain and De Wolf, Stefaan and Niesen, Bjoern and Ballif, Christophe},
abstractNote = {Combining market-proven silicon solar cell technology with an efficient wide band gap top cell into a tandem device is an attractive approach to reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. For this, perovskite solar cells are promising high-efficiency top cell candidates, but their typical device size (<0.2 cm2), is still far from standard industrial sizes. Here, we present a 1 cm2 near-infrared transparent perovskite solar cell with 14.5% steadystate efficiency, as compared to 16.4% on 0.25 cm2. By mechanically stacking these cells with silicon heterojunction cells, we experimentally demonstrate a 4-terminal tandem measurement with a steady-state efficiency of 25.2%, with a 0.25 cm2 top cell. The developed top cell processing methods enable the fabrication of a 20.5% efficient and 1.43 cm2 large monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cell, featuring a rear-side textured bottom cell to increase its near-infrared spectral response. Finally, we compare both tandem configurations to identify efficiency-limiting factors and discuss the potential for further performance improvement.},
doi = {10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00254},
journal = {ACS Energy Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jul 30 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Sat Jul 30 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acsenergylett.6b00254

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 66works
Citation information provided by
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  • Combining market-proven silicon solar cell technology with an efficient wide band gap top cell into a tandem device is an attractive approach to reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. For this, perovskite solar cells are promising high-efficiency top cell candidates, but their typical device size (<0.2 cm 2), is still far from standard industrial sizes. Here, we present a 1 cm 2 near-infrared transparent perovskite solar cell with 14.5% steadystate efficiency, as compared to 16.4% on 0.25 cm 2. By mechanically stacking these cells with silicon heterojunction cells, we experimentally demonstrate a 4-terminal tandem measurement with a steady-state efficiency ofmore » 25.2%, with a 0.25 cm 2 top cell. The developed top cell processing methods enable the fabrication of a 20.5% efficient and 1.43 cm 2 large monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cell, featuring a rear-side textured bottom cell to increase its near-infrared spectral response. Finally, we compare both tandem configurations to identify efficiency-limiting factors and discuss the potential for further performance improvement.« less
  • Here, we have investigated semi-transparent perovskite solar cells and infrared enhanced silicon heterojunction cells for high-efficiency tandem devices. A semi-transparent metal electrode with good electrical conductivity and optical transparency has been fabricated by thermal evaporation of 7 nm of Au onto a 1-nm-thick Cu seed layer. For this electrode to reach its full potential, MAPbI3 thin films were formed by a modified one-step spin-coating method, resulting in a smooth layer that allowed the subsequent metal thin film to remain continuous. The fabricated semi-transparent perovskite solar cells demonstrated 16.5% efficiency under one-sun illumination, and were coupled with infrared-enhanced silicon heterojunction cellsmore » tuned specifically for perovskite/Si tandem devices. A double-layer antireflection coating at the front side and MgF2 reflector at rear side of the silicon heterojunction cells reduced parasitic absorption of near-infrared light, leading to 6.5% efficiency after filtering with a perovskite device and 23.0% summed efficiency for the perovskite/Si tandem device.« less
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  • Near infrared (NIR) quantum cutting involving the conversion of an absorbed blue photon into two NIR photons emission has been realized in heavy Yb doped Ce{sub 0.03}Yb{sub 3x}Y{sub (2.97-3x)}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (x=0.1, 0.25, and 0.5) transparent ceramics. Upon the 467 nm excitation, the energy transfer process was dominated by the cooperative downconversion from the 5d{sub 1} state of one Ce{sup 3+} ion to the {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} state of two Yb{sup 3+} ions. The influence of the Ce{sup 4+}-Yb{sup 2+} charge transfer state (CTS) should not contribute much to the energy transfer process for the large energy gap between Ce{supmore » 3+}:5d{sub 1} and the CTS. The calculated quantum yield of Yb{sup 3+} for the x=0.25 sample without concentration quenching was 175.4%.« less
  • Silicon-based tandem solar cells can overcome the efficiency limit of single junction silicon solar cells. Perovskite solar cells are particularly promising as a top cell in monolithic tandem devices due to their rapid development towards high efficiencies, a tunable band gap with a sharp optical absorption edge and a simple production process. In monolithic tandem devices, the perovskite solar cell is deposited directly on the silicon cell, requiring low-temperature processes (< 200 °C) to maintain functionality of under-lying layers of the silicon cell in case of highly efficient silicon hetero-junction (SHJ) bottom solar cell. In this work, we present amore » complete low-temperature process for perovskite solar cells including a mesoporous titanium oxide (TiO 2) scaffold - a structure yielding the highest efficiencies for single-junction perovskite solar cells. We show that evaporation of the compact TiO 2 hole blocking layer and ultra-violet (UV) curing for the mesoporous TiO 2 layer allows for good performance, comparable to high-temperature (> 500 °C) processes. With both manufacturing routes, we obtain short-circuit current densities (J SC) of about 20 mA/cm 2, open-circuit voltages (V OC) over 1 V, fill factors (FF) between 0.7 and 0.8 and efficiencies (n) of more than 15%. We further show that the evaporated TiO 2 layer is suitable for the application in tandem devices. The series resistance of the layer itself and the contact resistance to an indium doped tin oxide (ITO) interconnection layer between the two sub-cells are low. Additionally, the low parasitic absorption for wavelengths above the perovskite band gap allow a higher absorption in the silicon bottom solar cell, which is essential to achieve high tandem efficiencies.« less