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Title: Infrared preheating to improve interlayer strength of big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) components

Abstract

The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system can print structures on the order of several meters at high extrusion rates, thereby having the potential to significantly impact automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. The functional use of such parts, however, may be limited by mechanical anisotropy in which the strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This has been primarily attributed to poor bonding between printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transition temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. Therefore, the potential of using infrared heating is considered for increasing the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. This study found significant improvements in bond strength for the deposition of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber when the surface temperature of the substrate material was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Bredesen Center for Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Education
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A)
OSTI Identifier:
1334232
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1366365
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Additive Manufacturing
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 14; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2214-8604
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Additive manufacturing; large scale; interlayer strength; composites; infrared preheating

Citation Formats

Kishore, Vidya, Ajinjeru, Christine, Nycz, Andrzej, Post, Brian K., Lindahl, John M., Kunc, Vlastimil, and Duty, Chad E. Infrared preheating to improve interlayer strength of big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) components. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2016.11.008.
Kishore, Vidya, Ajinjeru, Christine, Nycz, Andrzej, Post, Brian K., Lindahl, John M., Kunc, Vlastimil, & Duty, Chad E. Infrared preheating to improve interlayer strength of big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) components. United States. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2016.11.008.
Kishore, Vidya, Ajinjeru, Christine, Nycz, Andrzej, Post, Brian K., Lindahl, John M., Kunc, Vlastimil, and Duty, Chad E. Wed . "Infrared preheating to improve interlayer strength of big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) components". United States. doi:10.1016/j.addma.2016.11.008.
@article{osti_1334232,
title = {Infrared preheating to improve interlayer strength of big area additive manufacturing (BAAM) components},
author = {Kishore, Vidya and Ajinjeru, Christine and Nycz, Andrzej and Post, Brian K. and Lindahl, John M. and Kunc, Vlastimil and Duty, Chad E.},
abstractNote = {The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system can print structures on the order of several meters at high extrusion rates, thereby having the potential to significantly impact automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. The functional use of such parts, however, may be limited by mechanical anisotropy in which the strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This has been primarily attributed to poor bonding between printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transition temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. Therefore, the potential of using infrared heating is considered for increasing the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. This study found significant improvements in bond strength for the deposition of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber when the surface temperature of the substrate material was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating.},
doi = {10.1016/j.addma.2016.11.008},
journal = {Additive Manufacturing},
number = C,
volume = 14,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.addma.2016.11.008

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  • The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system can print structures on the order of several meters at high extrusion rates, thereby having the potential to significantly impact automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. The functional use of such parts, however, may be limited by mechanical anisotropy in which the strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This has been primarily attributed to poor bonding between printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transition temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. Therefore, themore » potential of using infrared heating is considered for increasing the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. This study found significant improvements in bond strength for the deposition of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber when the surface temperature of the substrate material was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating.« less
  • The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system has the capacity to print structures on the order of several meters at a rate exceeding 50 kg/h, thereby having the potential to significantly impact the production of components in automotive, aerospace and energy sectors. However, a primary issue that limits the functional use of such parts is mechanical anisotropy. The strength of printed parts across successive layers in the build direction (z-direction) is significantly lower than the corresponding in-plane strength (x-y directions). This is largely due to poor bonding between the printed layers as the lower layers cool below the glass transitionmore » temperature (Tg) before the next layer is deposited. This work explores the use of infrared heating to increase the surface temperature of the printed layer just prior to deposition of new material to improve the interlayer strength of the components. The material used in this study was acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) reinforced with 20% chopped carbon fiber by weight. Significant improvements in z-strength were observed for the parts whose surface temperature was increased from below Tg to close to or above Tg using infrared heating. Parameters such as print speed, nozzle diameter and extrusion temperature were also found to impact the heat input required to enhance interlayer adhesion without significantly degrading the polymer and compromising on surface finish.« less
  • This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generatedmore » considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.« less
  • Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).