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Title: CSP ELEMENTS: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power

Abstract

This project was motivated by the potential of reducible perovskite oxides for high-temperature, thermochemical energy storage (TCES) to provide dispatchable renewable heat for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. This project sought to identify and characterize perovskites from earth-abundant cations with high reducibility below 1000 °C for coupling TCES of solar energy to super-critical CO2 (s-CO2) plants that operate above temperature limits (< 600 °C) of current molten-salt storage. Specific TCES > 750 kJ/kg for storage cycles between 500 and 900 °C was targeted with a system cost goal of $15/kWhth. To realize feasibility of TCES systems based on reducible perovskites, our team focused on designing and testing a lab-scale concentrating solar receiver, wherein perovskite particles capture solar energy by fast O2 release and sensible heating at a thermal efficiency of 90% and wall temperatures below 1100 °C. System-level models of the receiver and reoxidation reactor coupled to validated thermochemical materials models can assess approaches to scale-up a full TCES system based on reduction/oxidation cycles of perovskite oxides at large scales. After characterizing many Ca-based perovskites for TCES, our team identified strontium-doped calcium manganite Ca1-xSrxMnO3-δ (with x ≤ 0.1) as a composition with adequate stability and specific TCES capacity (> 750more » kJ/kg for Ca0.95Sr0.05MnO3-δ) for cycling between air at 500 °C and low-PO2 (10-4 bar) N2 at 900 °C. Substantial kinetic tests demonstrated that resident times of several minutes in low-PO2 gas were needed for these materials to reach the specific TCES goals with particles of reasonable size for large-scale transport (diameter dp > 200 μm). On the other hand, fast reoxidation kinetics in air enables subsequent rapid heat release in a fluidized reoxidation reactor/ heat recovery unit for driving s-CO2 power plants. Validated material thermochemistry coupled to radiation and convective particle-gas transport models facilitated full TCES system analysis for CSP and results showed that receiver efficiencies approaching 85% were feasible with wall-to-particle heat transfer coefficients observed in laboratory experiments. Coupling these reactive particle-gas transport models to external SolTrace and CFD models drove design of a reactive-particle receiver with indirect heating through flux spreading. A lab-scale receiver using Ca0.9Sr0.1MnO3-δ was demonstrated at NREL’s High Flux Solar Furnace with particle temperatures reaching 900 °C while wall temperatures remained below 1100 °C and approximately 200 kJ/kg of chemical energy storage. These first demonstrations of on-sun perovskite reduction and the robust modeling tools from this program provide a basis for going forward with improved receiver designs to increase heat fluxes and solar-energy capture efficiencies. Measurements and modeling tools from this project provide the foundations for advancing TCES for CSP and other applications using reducible perovskite oxides from low-cost, earth-abundant elements. A perovskite composition has been identified that has the thermodynamic potential to meet the targeted TCES capacity of 750 kJ/kg over a range of temperatures amenable for integration with s-CO2 cycles. Further research needs to explore ways of accelerating effective particle kinetics through variations in composition and/or reactor/receiver design. Initial demonstrations of on-sun particle reduction for TCES show a need for testing at larger scales with reduced heat losses and improved particle-wall heat transfer. The gained insight into particle-gas transport and reactor design can launch future development of cost-effective, large-scale particle-based TCES as a technology for enabling increased renewable energy penetration.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1333903
Report Number(s):
DOE-CSM-6537
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0006537
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; Thermochemical Energy Storage; Concentrating Solar Power; Perovskites; Redox Cycles

Citation Formats

Jackson, Gregory S, Braun, Robert J, Ma, Zhiwen, Martinek, Janna, Netter, Judy, Imponenti, Luca, Albrecht, Kevin J, and Miller, Daniel. CSP ELEMENTS: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Jackson, Gregory S, Braun, Robert J, Ma, Zhiwen, Martinek, Janna, Netter, Judy, Imponenti, Luca, Albrecht, Kevin J, & Miller, Daniel. CSP ELEMENTS: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power. United States.
Jackson, Gregory S, Braun, Robert J, Ma, Zhiwen, Martinek, Janna, Netter, Judy, Imponenti, Luca, Albrecht, Kevin J, and Miller, Daniel. Wed . "CSP ELEMENTS: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power". United States.
@article{osti_1333903,
title = {CSP ELEMENTS: High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power},
author = {Jackson, Gregory S and Braun, Robert J and Ma, Zhiwen and Martinek, Janna and Netter, Judy and Imponenti, Luca and Albrecht, Kevin J and Miller, Daniel},
abstractNote = {This project was motivated by the potential of reducible perovskite oxides for high-temperature, thermochemical energy storage (TCES) to provide dispatchable renewable heat for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. This project sought to identify and characterize perovskites from earth-abundant cations with high reducibility below 1000 °C for coupling TCES of solar energy to super-critical CO2 (s-CO2) plants that operate above temperature limits (< 600 °C) of current molten-salt storage. Specific TCES > 750 kJ/kg for storage cycles between 500 and 900 °C was targeted with a system cost goal of $15/kWhth. To realize feasibility of TCES systems based on reducible perovskites, our team focused on designing and testing a lab-scale concentrating solar receiver, wherein perovskite particles capture solar energy by fast O2 release and sensible heating at a thermal efficiency of 90% and wall temperatures below 1100 °C. System-level models of the receiver and reoxidation reactor coupled to validated thermochemical materials models can assess approaches to scale-up a full TCES system based on reduction/oxidation cycles of perovskite oxides at large scales. After characterizing many Ca-based perovskites for TCES, our team identified strontium-doped calcium manganite Ca1-xSrxMnO3-δ (with x ≤ 0.1) as a composition with adequate stability and specific TCES capacity (> 750 kJ/kg for Ca0.95Sr0.05MnO3-δ) for cycling between air at 500 °C and low-PO2 (10-4 bar) N2 at 900 °C. Substantial kinetic tests demonstrated that resident times of several minutes in low-PO2 gas were needed for these materials to reach the specific TCES goals with particles of reasonable size for large-scale transport (diameter dp > 200 μm). On the other hand, fast reoxidation kinetics in air enables subsequent rapid heat release in a fluidized reoxidation reactor/ heat recovery unit for driving s-CO2 power plants. Validated material thermochemistry coupled to radiation and convective particle-gas transport models facilitated full TCES system analysis for CSP and results showed that receiver efficiencies approaching 85% were feasible with wall-to-particle heat transfer coefficients observed in laboratory experiments. Coupling these reactive particle-gas transport models to external SolTrace and CFD models drove design of a reactive-particle receiver with indirect heating through flux spreading. A lab-scale receiver using Ca0.9Sr0.1MnO3-δ was demonstrated at NREL’s High Flux Solar Furnace with particle temperatures reaching 900 °C while wall temperatures remained below 1100 °C and approximately 200 kJ/kg of chemical energy storage. These first demonstrations of on-sun perovskite reduction and the robust modeling tools from this program provide a basis for going forward with improved receiver designs to increase heat fluxes and solar-energy capture efficiencies. Measurements and modeling tools from this project provide the foundations for advancing TCES for CSP and other applications using reducible perovskite oxides from low-cost, earth-abundant elements. A perovskite composition has been identified that has the thermodynamic potential to meet the targeted TCES capacity of 750 kJ/kg over a range of temperatures amenable for integration with s-CO2 cycles. Further research needs to explore ways of accelerating effective particle kinetics through variations in composition and/or reactor/receiver design. Initial demonstrations of on-sun particle reduction for TCES show a need for testing at larger scales with reduced heat losses and improved particle-wall heat transfer. The gained insight into particle-gas transport and reactor design can launch future development of cost-effective, large-scale particle-based TCES as a technology for enabling increased renewable energy penetration.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {11}
}

Technical Report:
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