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Title: First measurements of high frequency cross-spectra from a pair of large Michelson interferometers

Abstract

Here, measurements are reported of the cross-correlation of spectra of differential position signals from the Fermilab Holometer, a pair of colocated 39 m long, high power Michelson interferometers with flat broadband frequency response in the MHz range. The instrument obtains sensitivity to high frequency correlated signals far exceeding any previous measurement in a broad frequency band extending beyond the 3.8 MHz inverse light-crossing time of the apparatus. The dominant but uncorrelated shot noise is averaged down over 2 × 10 8 independent spectral measurements with 381 Hz frequency resolution to obtain 2.1 × 10 -20m/ √Hz sensitivity to stationary signals. For signal bandwidths Δf > 11 kHz, the sensitivity to strain h or shear power spectral density of classical or exotic origin surpasses a milestone PSD δh < t p where t p = 5.39 × 10 -44/ Hz is the Planck time.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [1];  [1];  [8];  [9]
  1. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  2. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  3. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)
  5. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Republic of Korea)
  6. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  7. Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  8. Space X, Hawthorne, CA (United States)
  9. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Holometer Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1330368
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1323572
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-217-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007; PRLTAO; 1486143
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 117; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Chou, Aaron S., Gustafson, Richard, Hogan, Craig, Kamai, Brittany, Kwon, Ohkyung, Lanza, Robert, McCuller, Lee, Meyer, Stephan S., Richardson, Jonathan, Stoughton, Chris, Tomlin, Raymond, Waldman, Samuel, and Weiss, Rainer. First measurements of high frequency cross-spectra from a pair of large Michelson interferometers. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.111102.
Chou, Aaron S., Gustafson, Richard, Hogan, Craig, Kamai, Brittany, Kwon, Ohkyung, Lanza, Robert, McCuller, Lee, Meyer, Stephan S., Richardson, Jonathan, Stoughton, Chris, Tomlin, Raymond, Waldman, Samuel, & Weiss, Rainer. First measurements of high frequency cross-spectra from a pair of large Michelson interferometers. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.111102.
Chou, Aaron S., Gustafson, Richard, Hogan, Craig, Kamai, Brittany, Kwon, Ohkyung, Lanza, Robert, McCuller, Lee, Meyer, Stephan S., Richardson, Jonathan, Stoughton, Chris, Tomlin, Raymond, Waldman, Samuel, and Weiss, Rainer. Fri . "First measurements of high frequency cross-spectra from a pair of large Michelson interferometers". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.111102. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1330368.
@article{osti_1330368,
title = {First measurements of high frequency cross-spectra from a pair of large Michelson interferometers},
author = {Chou, Aaron S. and Gustafson, Richard and Hogan, Craig and Kamai, Brittany and Kwon, Ohkyung and Lanza, Robert and McCuller, Lee and Meyer, Stephan S. and Richardson, Jonathan and Stoughton, Chris and Tomlin, Raymond and Waldman, Samuel and Weiss, Rainer},
abstractNote = {Here, measurements are reported of the cross-correlation of spectra of differential position signals from the Fermilab Holometer, a pair of colocated 39 m long, high power Michelson interferometers with flat broadband frequency response in the MHz range. The instrument obtains sensitivity to high frequency correlated signals far exceeding any previous measurement in a broad frequency band extending beyond the 3.8 MHz inverse light-crossing time of the apparatus. The dominant but uncorrelated shot noise is averaged down over 2 × 108 independent spectral measurements with 381 Hz frequency resolution to obtain 2.1 × 10-20m/ √Hz sensitivity to stationary signals. For signal bandwidths Δf > 11 kHz, the sensitivity to strain h or shear power spectral density of classical or exotic origin surpasses a milestone PSDδh < tp where tp = 5.39 × 10-44/ Hz is the Planck time.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.111102},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 11,
volume = 117,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 09 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Sep 09 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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  • Measurements are reported of high frequency cross-spectra of signals from the Fermilab Holometer, a pair of co-located 39 m, high power Michelson interferometers. The instrument obtains differential position sensitivity to cross-correlated signals far exceeding any previous measurement in a broad frequency band extending to the 3.8 MHz inverse light crossing time of the apparatus. A model of universal exotic spatial shear correlations that matches the Planck scale holographic information bound of space-time position states is excluded to 4.6{\sigma} significance.
  • We present the first measurement of the large-scale cross-correlation of Lyα forest absorption and Damped Lyman α systems (DLA), using the 9th Data Release of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is clearly detected on scales up to 40h{sup −1}Mpc and is well fitted by the linear theory prediction of the standard Cold Dark Matter model of structure formation with the expected redshift distortions, confirming its origin in the gravitational evolution of structure. The amplitude of the DLA-Lyα cross-correlation depends on only one free parameter, the bias factor of the DLA systems, once the Lyα forest bias factorsmore » are known from independent Lyα forest correlation measurements. We measure the DLA bias factor to be b{sub D} = (2.17±0.20)β{sub F}{sup 0.22}, where the Lyα forest redshift distortion parameter β{sub F} is expected to be above unity. This bias factor implies a typical host halo mass for DLAs that is much larger than expected in present DLA models, and is reproduced if the DLA cross section scales with halo mass as M{sub h}{sup α}, with α = 1.1±0.1 for β{sub F} = 1. Matching the observed DLA bias factor and rate of incidence requires that atomic gas remains extended in massive halos over larger areas than predicted in present simulations of galaxy formation, with typical DLA proper sizes larger than 20 kpc in host halos of masses ∼ 10{sup 12}M{sub ☉}. We infer that typical galaxies at z ≅ 2 to 3 are surrounded by systems of atomic clouds that are much more extended than the luminous parts of galaxies and contain ∼ 10% of the baryons in the host halo.« less
  • The possibility of using Young-Michelson and Brown-Twiss interferometers for measuring the angular dimensions and parameters of the surface shape of remote passively scattering and self-luminous nonplanar rough objects by optical radiation propagating from them is substantiated. The analysis is based on the properties of approximate transverse functions of field coherence B{sub t} and B{sub t}' and intensity coherence B{sub ti} and B{sub ti}' formed by the time averaging of the products of fields and intensities taken at two points of a receiving aperture (the prime denotes self-luminous objects). The averaging time is set to be much longer than the coherencemore » time of radiation propagating from an object. It is shown that for the radiation coherence length much smaller than the depth of the visible region of the object, the functions B{sub t} and B{sub t}' are proportional to the Fourier transform of the intensity distribution in the image of a remote object, which is the generalisation of the Van Cittert-Zernicke theorem to the case of a nonplanar object, while functions B{sub ti} and B{sub ti}' are proportional to the squares of the modulus of the Fourier transform of this distribution. It is also shown that the recording of functions B{sub t} and B{sub t}' with a Young-Michelson interferometer gives only the angular dimensions of the visible region of objects, whereas the recording of functions B{sub ti} and B{sub ti}' with a Brown-Twiss interferometer allows one to find these dimensions and the radius of curvature of the object surface. (laser radiation scattering)« less