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Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways

Abstract

Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to themore » rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1330297
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-108616
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8502; 400412000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Aerosol Science; Journal Volume: 99
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics; particle deposition; New Zealand white rabbit; human; bacillus anthracis; lung

Citation Formats

Kabilan, Senthil, Suffield, Sarah R., Recknagle, Kurtis P., Jacob, Rick E., Einstein, Daniel R., Kuprat, Andrew P., Carson, James P., Colby, Sean M., Saunders, James H., Hines, Stephanie, Teeguarden, Justin G., Straub, Tim M., Moe, M., Taft, Sarah, and Corley, Richard A. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011.
Kabilan, Senthil, Suffield, Sarah R., Recknagle, Kurtis P., Jacob, Rick E., Einstein, Daniel R., Kuprat, Andrew P., Carson, James P., Colby, Sean M., Saunders, James H., Hines, Stephanie, Teeguarden, Justin G., Straub, Tim M., Moe, M., Taft, Sarah, & Corley, Richard A. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011.
Kabilan, Senthil, Suffield, Sarah R., Recknagle, Kurtis P., Jacob, Rick E., Einstein, Daniel R., Kuprat, Andrew P., Carson, James P., Colby, Sean M., Saunders, James H., Hines, Stephanie, Teeguarden, Justin G., Straub, Tim M., Moe, M., Taft, Sarah, and Corley, Richard A. Fri . "Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011.
@article{osti_1330297,
title = {Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis Spore Deposition in Rabbit and Human Respiratory Airways},
author = {Kabilan, Senthil and Suffield, Sarah R. and Recknagle, Kurtis P. and Jacob, Rick E. and Einstein, Daniel R. and Kuprat, Andrew P. and Carson, James P. and Colby, Sean M. and Saunders, James H. and Hines, Stephanie and Teeguarden, Justin G. and Straub, Tim M. and Moe, M. and Taft, Sarah and Corley, Richard A.},
abstractNote = {Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. The highest exposure concentration was modeled in the rabbit based upon prior acute inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulation was also conducted at the same concentration. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. As a result, higher particle deposition was predicted in the conducting airways and deep lung of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jaerosci.2016.01.011},
journal = {Journal of Aerosol Science},
number = ,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Sep 30 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Fri Sep 30 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}