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Title: Explore the Effects of Microstructural Defects on Voltage Fade of Li- and Mn-Rich Cathodes

Abstract

Li- and Mn-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been considered as promising candidates for energy storage applications due to high energy density. However, these materials suffer from a serious problem of voltage fade. Oxygen loss and the layer to spinel phase transition are two major contributors of such voltage fade. In this paper, using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), x-ray absorption (XAS) techniques and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we studied the effects of micro structural defects, especially the grain boundaries on the oxygen loss and layered-to-spinel phase transition through prelithiation of a model compound Li2Ru0.5Mn0.5O3. It is found that the nano-sized micro structural defects, especially the large amount of grain boundaries created by the prelithiation can greatly accelerate the oxygen loss and voltage fade. Defects (such as nano-sized grain boundaries) and oxygen release form a positive feedback loop, promote each other during cycling, and accelerate the two major voltage fade contributors: the transition metal reduction and layered-to-spinel phase transition. These results clearly demonstrate the important relationships among the oxygen loss, microstructural defects and voltage fade. The importance of maintaining good crystallinity and protecting the surface of LMR material are also suggested.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Physics. Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Shanghai Univ. (China)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Physics. Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS)
  4. Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Physics. Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1329785
Report Number(s):
BNL-112729-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; Lithium Ion Battery; Center for Functional Nanomaterials

Citation Formats

Hu, E., Lyu, Y., Xin, H., Xin, H. L., Liu, J., Han, L., Bak, S. -M., Bai, J., Yu, X., Li, H., and Yang, X. Q. Explore the Effects of Microstructural Defects on Voltage Fade of Li- and Mn-Rich Cathodes. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01609.
Hu, E., Lyu, Y., Xin, H., Xin, H. L., Liu, J., Han, L., Bak, S. -M., Bai, J., Yu, X., Li, H., & Yang, X. Q. Explore the Effects of Microstructural Defects on Voltage Fade of Li- and Mn-Rich Cathodes. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01609.
Hu, E., Lyu, Y., Xin, H., Xin, H. L., Liu, J., Han, L., Bak, S. -M., Bai, J., Yu, X., Li, H., and Yang, X. Q. Mon . "Explore the Effects of Microstructural Defects on Voltage Fade of Li- and Mn-Rich Cathodes". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01609. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1329785.
@article{osti_1329785,
title = {Explore the Effects of Microstructural Defects on Voltage Fade of Li- and Mn-Rich Cathodes},
author = {Hu, E. and Lyu, Y. and Xin, H. and Xin, H. L. and Liu, J. and Han, L. and Bak, S. -M. and Bai, J. and Yu, X. and Li, H. and Yang, X. Q.},
abstractNote = {Li- and Mn-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been considered as promising candidates for energy storage applications due to high energy density. However, these materials suffer from a serious problem of voltage fade. Oxygen loss and the layer to spinel phase transition are two major contributors of such voltage fade. In this paper, using a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), pair distribution function (PDF), x-ray absorption (XAS) techniques and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we studied the effects of micro structural defects, especially the grain boundaries on the oxygen loss and layered-to-spinel phase transition through prelithiation of a model compound Li2Ru0.5Mn0.5O3. It is found that the nano-sized micro structural defects, especially the large amount of grain boundaries created by the prelithiation can greatly accelerate the oxygen loss and voltage fade. Defects (such as nano-sized grain boundaries) and oxygen release form a positive feedback loop, promote each other during cycling, and accelerate the two major voltage fade contributors: the transition metal reduction and layered-to-spinel phase transition. These results clearly demonstrate the important relationships among the oxygen loss, microstructural defects and voltage fade. The importance of maintaining good crystallinity and protecting the surface of LMR material are also suggested.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b01609},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 10,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Sep 26 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Sep 26 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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