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Title: L2 Milestone 5433: Characterization of Dynamic Behavior of AM and Conventionally Processed Stainless Steel (316L and 304L)

Abstract

For additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials, the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there currently exists no broadly accepted “ASTM- or DIN-type” additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, design, manufacture, and thereafter implementation and insertion of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires detailed quantification of the constitutive (strength and damage) properties of these evolving materials, across the spectrum of metallic AM methods, in comparison/contrast to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. This report summarizes the 316L SS research results and presents initial results of the follow-on study of 304L SS. For the AM-316L SS investigation, cylindrical samples of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS was characterized in both the “as-built” Additively Manufactured state and following a heat-treatment designed to obtain full recrystallization to facilitate comparison with annealed wrought 316L SS. The dynamic shock-loading-induced damage evolution and failure response of all three 316L SS materials was quantified using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at peak stresses of 4.5 and 6.35 GPa. The results of these studies are reported in detail in the first sectionmore » of the report. Publication of the 316L SS results in an archival journal is planned. Following on from the 316L SS completed work, initial results on a study of AM 304L SS are in progress and presented herein. Preliminary results on the structure/dynamic spallation property behavior of AM-304L SS fabricated using both the directed-energy LENS and an EOS powder-bed AM techniques in comparison to wrought 304L SS is detailed in this Level 2 Milestone report.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Inst. for Shock Physics
  3. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP) (NA-10)
OSTI Identifier:
1329535
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-27337
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; additive manufacturing; 316L SS; spallation; microstructure; damage evolution

Citation Formats

Gray, George Thompson, Livescu, Veronica, Rigg, P. A., Trujillo, Carl Patrick, Cady, Carl McElhinney, Chen, Shuh-Rong, Carpenter, John S., Lienert, Thomas J., Fensin, Saryu Jindal, Knapp, Cameron M., Beal, Roberta Ann, Morrow, Benjamin, Dippo, Olivia F., Jones, David Robert, Martinez, Daniel Tito, and Valdez, James Anthony. L2 Milestone 5433: Characterization of Dynamic Behavior of AM and Conventionally Processed Stainless Steel (316L and 304L). United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1329535.
Gray, George Thompson, Livescu, Veronica, Rigg, P. A., Trujillo, Carl Patrick, Cady, Carl McElhinney, Chen, Shuh-Rong, Carpenter, John S., Lienert, Thomas J., Fensin, Saryu Jindal, Knapp, Cameron M., Beal, Roberta Ann, Morrow, Benjamin, Dippo, Olivia F., Jones, David Robert, Martinez, Daniel Tito, & Valdez, James Anthony. L2 Milestone 5433: Characterization of Dynamic Behavior of AM and Conventionally Processed Stainless Steel (316L and 304L). United States. doi:10.2172/1329535.
Gray, George Thompson, Livescu, Veronica, Rigg, P. A., Trujillo, Carl Patrick, Cady, Carl McElhinney, Chen, Shuh-Rong, Carpenter, John S., Lienert, Thomas J., Fensin, Saryu Jindal, Knapp, Cameron M., Beal, Roberta Ann, Morrow, Benjamin, Dippo, Olivia F., Jones, David Robert, Martinez, Daniel Tito, and Valdez, James Anthony. 2016. "L2 Milestone 5433: Characterization of Dynamic Behavior of AM and Conventionally Processed Stainless Steel (316L and 304L)". United States. doi:10.2172/1329535. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1329535.
@article{osti_1329535,
title = {L2 Milestone 5433: Characterization of Dynamic Behavior of AM and Conventionally Processed Stainless Steel (316L and 304L)},
author = {Gray, George Thompson and Livescu, Veronica and Rigg, P. A. and Trujillo, Carl Patrick and Cady, Carl McElhinney and Chen, Shuh-Rong and Carpenter, John S. and Lienert, Thomas J. and Fensin, Saryu Jindal and Knapp, Cameron M. and Beal, Roberta Ann and Morrow, Benjamin and Dippo, Olivia F. and Jones, David Robert and Martinez, Daniel Tito and Valdez, James Anthony},
abstractNote = {For additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials, the certification and qualification paradigm needs to evolve as there currently exists no broadly accepted “ASTM- or DIN-type” additive manufacturing certified process or AM-material produced specifications. Accordingly, design, manufacture, and thereafter implementation and insertion of AM materials to meet engineering applications requires detailed quantification of the constitutive (strength and damage) properties of these evolving materials, across the spectrum of metallic AM methods, in comparison/contrast to conventionally-manufactured metals and alloys. This report summarizes the 316L SS research results and presents initial results of the follow-on study of 304L SS. For the AM-316L SS investigation, cylindrical samples of 316L SS were produced using a LENS MR-7 laser additive manufacturing system from Optomec (Albuquerque, NM) equipped with a 1kW Yb-fiber laser. The microstructure of the AM-316L SS was characterized in both the “as-built” Additively Manufactured state and following a heat-treatment designed to obtain full recrystallization to facilitate comparison with annealed wrought 316L SS. The dynamic shock-loading-induced damage evolution and failure response of all three 316L SS materials was quantified using flyer-plate impact driven spallation experiments at peak stresses of 4.5 and 6.35 GPa. The results of these studies are reported in detail in the first section of the report. Publication of the 316L SS results in an archival journal is planned. Following on from the 316L SS completed work, initial results on a study of AM 304L SS are in progress and presented herein. Preliminary results on the structure/dynamic spallation property behavior of AM-304L SS fabricated using both the directed-energy LENS and an EOS powder-bed AM techniques in comparison to wrought 304L SS is detailed in this Level 2 Milestone report.},
doi = {10.2172/1329535},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • Corrosion and plate-out tests were performed on 304L and 316L stainless steel in pretreated Envelope B and Envelope C solutions. Flat coupons of the two stainless steels were exposed to 100 degrees C liquid and to 74 degrees C and 88 degrees C vapor above the solutions for 61 days. No significant corrosion was observed either by weight-loss measurements or by microscopic examination. Most coupons had small weight gains due to plate-out of solids, which remained to some extent even after 24-hour immersion in 1 N nitric acid at room temperature. Plate-out was more significant in the Envelope B coupons,more » with film thickness from less than 0.001 in. to 0.003-inches.« less
  • Type 304L stainless steel sheet formed by a semi-piercing process has regions of localized plastic deformation and material flow estimated to correspond to approximately 40% cold work at maximum. The resulting microstructures in the bulk (undeformed) and deformed regions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy prior to and following annealing treatments. The deformed region prior to annealing was observed to have complex microstructure consisting of {gamma} phase and the strain induced martensitic phases, {alpha}{prime} (bcc) and {epsilon} (hcp). Additionally, high densities of dislocations, stacking faults, and deformation twins were observed. Annealing at 450{degrees}C for 15 minutes resulted in little observedmore » microstructural change. After 30 minutes at 750{degrees}C, considerable recrystallization and recovery was evident with substantial reversion of the martensitic phases. The residual banded microstructural features associated with the deformed structure were identified as twin related {gamma} (fcc). Finally, annealing at 1050{degrees}C showed a completely recrystallized microstructure having large equiaxed grains, annealing twins, and a with very low dislocation density.« less
  • A statistical analysis determined flange thickness to be the most significant independent variable on weld penetration within the experimental range, followed by gap size and flange height. Step size was concluded to be insignificant on welf penetration in the experimental range from 0 to 0.020 in. When an optmized low heat input weld schedule was used, weld penetration was dependent upon flange thickness and flange height when gap size was less than 0.0075 in. and upon flange thickness and gap when gap size varied from 0.0075 to 0.015 in. Generally, as weld penetration increased, flange thickness and gap size decreasedmore » while flange height increased. Weld penetration could be predicted for various flange thicknesses, flange heights, and gaps by utilizing the factorial cube, surface response curves, topography maps, and weld penetration equations developed from this study. The 0.030-in. minimum weld penetration requirement could not be met throughout the tolerance range unless flange thickness was approximately 0.025 in. A technical thrust is presently being pursued to characterize a cold wire feed gas tungsten arc system to enhance weld penetration and meet product drawing requirments.« less