skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Calibration Target Placements during HI-SCALE (Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems)

Abstract

Test the feasibility of incorporating atmospheric models to improve simulation algorithms of image collection, developed at NGA. Various calibration objects will be used to compare simulated image products with real image products.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (US)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER)
OSTI Identifier:
1328760
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Data
Data Type:
Numeric Data
Country of Publication:
United States
Availability:
ORNL
Language:
English
Subject:
54 Environmental Sciences; sgp, ground temperature, radiometer, data loggers, emissivity, thermal calibration, latitude, longitude, commercial satellite images, visible bands, near-infrared bands

Citation Formats

Kalukin, Andrew, and Endo, Satashi. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Calibration Target Placements during HI-SCALE (Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems). United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.5439/1328760.
Kalukin, Andrew, & Endo, Satashi. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Calibration Target Placements during HI-SCALE (Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems). United States. doi:10.5439/1328760.
Kalukin, Andrew, and Endo, Satashi. 2016. "National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Calibration Target Placements during HI-SCALE (Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems)". United States. doi:10.5439/1328760. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1328760.
@article{osti_1328760,
title = {National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Calibration Target Placements during HI-SCALE (Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems)},
author = {Kalukin, Andrew and Endo, Satashi},
abstractNote = {Test the feasibility of incorporating atmospheric models to improve simulation algorithms of image collection, developed at NGA. Various calibration objects will be used to compare simulated image products with real image products.},
doi = {10.5439/1328760},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Dataset:

Save / Share:
  • Most of the instruments were deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-159 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Aerosol microphysical property measurements supplemented routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface. The G-1 completed transects over the SGP Central Facility at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer, and within and above clouds.
  • Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the Southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in boundary layer and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign is designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtain a moremore » complete understanding of the life cycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. HI-SCALE consists of 2, 4-week intensive observational periods, one in the spring and the other in the late summer, to take advantage of different stages and distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the Atmospheric Radiation and Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site as well as aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. Most of the proposed instrumentation will be deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface will be supplemented with aerosol microphysical properties measurements. The G-1 aircraft will complete transects over the SGP Central Facility at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer, within clouds, and above clouds.« less
  • Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in land surface, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtainmore » a more complete understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. Some of the land-atmosphere-cloud interactions that can be studied using HI-SCALE data are shown in Figure 1. HI-SCALE consisted of two 4-week intensive operation periods (IOPs), one in the spring (April 24-May 21) and the other in the late summer (August 28-September 24) of 2016, to take advantage of different stages of the plant lifecycle, the distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, and aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. As expected, satellite measurements indicated that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was much “greener” in the vicinity of the SGP site during the spring IOP than the late summer IOP as a result of winter wheat maturing in the spring and being harvested in the early summer. As shown in Figure 2, temperatures were cooler than average and soil moisture was high during the spring IOP, while temperatures were warmer than average and soil moisture was low during the late summer IOP. These factors likely influence the occurrence and lifecycle of shallow clouds. Most of the instrumentation was deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The specific instrumentation is listed in Table 1. The team of scientists participating in the G-1 flights were from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and the University of Washington. Routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface were supplemented with aerosol microphysical properties measurements, with support from the DOE Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) User Facility and the Atmospheric System Radiation (ASR) program. This included deploying a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure aerosol size distribution, a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) to measure volatile organic compounds, an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure bulk aerosol composition, and the single-particle laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) to measure single-particle aerosol composition at the SGP site Guest Instrumentation Facility. In this way, characterization of aerosol properties at the surface and on the G-1 were consistent. In addition, the HI-SCALE: Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors add-on campaign was conducted during the second IOP in which several state-of-the-science chemical ionization mass spectrometers were deployed to measure nanoparticle composition and precursors. Scientists participating in the surface measurements were from PNNL, BNL, University California–Irvine, Augsberg College, Colorado University, Aerodyne Inc., and Aerosol Dynamics Inc.« less
  • The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate relationships between aerosols and clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City during the June 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The regional scale simulation completed using 2 km horizontal grid spacing evaluates four important relationships between aerosols and shallow cumulus clouds observed during CHAPS. First, the model reproduces the trends of higher nitrate volume fractions in cloud droplet residuals compared to interstitial non-activated aerosols, as measured using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Comparing simulations with cloud chemistry turned on and off, we show that nitric acidmore » vapor uptake by cloud droplets explains the higher nitrate content of cloud droplet residuals. Second, as documented using an offline code, both aerosol water and other inorganics (OIN), which are related to dust and crustal emissions, significantly affect predicted aerosol optical properties. Reducing the OIN content of wet aerosols by 50% significantly improves agreement of model predictions with measurements of aerosol optical properties. Third, the simulated hygroscopicity of aerosols is too high as compared to their hygroscopicity derived from cloud condensation nuclei and particle size distribution measurements, indicating uncertainties associated with simulating size-dependent chemical composition and treatment of aerosol mixing state within the model. Fourth, the model reasonably represents the observations of the first aerosol indirect effect where pollutants in the vicinity of Oklahoma City increase cloud droplet number concentrations and decrease the droplet effective radius. While previous studies have often focused on cloud-aerosol interactions in stratiform and deep convective clouds, this study highlights the ability of regional-scale models to represent some of the important aspects of cloud-aerosol interactions associated with fields of short-lived shallow cumuli.« less