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Title: A search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational-wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND

Abstract

Here, we present a search, using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale anti-neutrino detector, for low-energy anti-neutrino events that were coincident with the gravitational-wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within ±500 s of either GW signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron anti-neutrino fluence and the total integrated luminosity of the astrophysical sources.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1328751
Report Number(s):
LBNL-1006358
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; ir:1006358; TRN: US1700103
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-01ER41166; FG03-00ER41138; AC02-05CH11231; 26104002; 26104007
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 829; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gravitational waves; neutrinos

Citation Formats

Gando, A., Gando, Y., Hachiya, T., Hayashi, A., Hayashida, S., Ikeda, H., Inoue, K., Ishidoshiro, K., Karino, Y., Koga, M., Matsuda, S., Mitsui, T., Nakamura, K., Obara, S., Oura, T., Ozaki, H., Shimizu, I., Shirahata, Y., Shirai, J., Suzuki, A., Takai, T., Tamae, K., Teraoka, Y., Ueshima, K., Watanabe, H., Kozlov, A., Takemoto, Y., Yoshida, S., Fushimi, K., Piepke, A., Banks, T. I., Berger, B. E., Fujikawa, B. K., O’Donnell, T., Learned, J. G., Maricic, J., Sakai, M., Winslow, L. A., Krupczak, E., Ouellet, J., Efremenko, Y., Karwowski, H. J., Markoff, D. M., Tornow, W., Detwiler, J. A., Enomoto, S., and Decowski, M. P. A search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational-wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/2/L34.
Gando, A., Gando, Y., Hachiya, T., Hayashi, A., Hayashida, S., Ikeda, H., Inoue, K., Ishidoshiro, K., Karino, Y., Koga, M., Matsuda, S., Mitsui, T., Nakamura, K., Obara, S., Oura, T., Ozaki, H., Shimizu, I., Shirahata, Y., Shirai, J., Suzuki, A., Takai, T., Tamae, K., Teraoka, Y., Ueshima, K., Watanabe, H., Kozlov, A., Takemoto, Y., Yoshida, S., Fushimi, K., Piepke, A., Banks, T. I., Berger, B. E., Fujikawa, B. K., O’Donnell, T., Learned, J. G., Maricic, J., Sakai, M., Winslow, L. A., Krupczak, E., Ouellet, J., Efremenko, Y., Karwowski, H. J., Markoff, D. M., Tornow, W., Detwiler, J. A., Enomoto, S., & Decowski, M. P. A search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational-wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/2/L34.
Gando, A., Gando, Y., Hachiya, T., Hayashi, A., Hayashida, S., Ikeda, H., Inoue, K., Ishidoshiro, K., Karino, Y., Koga, M., Matsuda, S., Mitsui, T., Nakamura, K., Obara, S., Oura, T., Ozaki, H., Shimizu, I., Shirahata, Y., Shirai, J., Suzuki, A., Takai, T., Tamae, K., Teraoka, Y., Ueshima, K., Watanabe, H., Kozlov, A., Takemoto, Y., Yoshida, S., Fushimi, K., Piepke, A., Banks, T. I., Berger, B. E., Fujikawa, B. K., O’Donnell, T., Learned, J. G., Maricic, J., Sakai, M., Winslow, L. A., Krupczak, E., Ouellet, J., Efremenko, Y., Karwowski, H. J., Markoff, D. M., Tornow, W., Detwiler, J. A., Enomoto, S., and Decowski, M. P. 2016. "A search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational-wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/2/L34. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1328751.
@article{osti_1328751,
title = {A search for electron antineutrinos associated with gravitational-wave events GW150914 and GW151226 using KamLAND},
author = {Gando, A. and Gando, Y. and Hachiya, T. and Hayashi, A. and Hayashida, S. and Ikeda, H. and Inoue, K. and Ishidoshiro, K. and Karino, Y. and Koga, M. and Matsuda, S. and Mitsui, T. and Nakamura, K. and Obara, S. and Oura, T. and Ozaki, H. and Shimizu, I. and Shirahata, Y. and Shirai, J. and Suzuki, A. and Takai, T. and Tamae, K. and Teraoka, Y. and Ueshima, K. and Watanabe, H. and Kozlov, A. and Takemoto, Y. and Yoshida, S. and Fushimi, K. and Piepke, A. and Banks, T. I. and Berger, B. E. and Fujikawa, B. K. and O’Donnell, T. and Learned, J. G. and Maricic, J. and Sakai, M. and Winslow, L. A. and Krupczak, E. and Ouellet, J. and Efremenko, Y. and Karwowski, H. J. and Markoff, D. M. and Tornow, W. and Detwiler, J. A. and Enomoto, S. and Decowski, M. P.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present a search, using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale anti-neutrino detector, for low-energy anti-neutrino events that were coincident with the gravitational-wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within ±500 s of either GW signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron anti-neutrino fluence and the total integrated luminosity of the astrophysical sources.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/829/2/L34},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 829,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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  • Here, we present a search, using KamLAND, a kiloton-scale anti-neutrino detector, for low-energy anti-neutrino events that were coincident with the gravitational-wave (GW) events GW150914 and GW151226, and the candidate event LVT151012. We find no inverse beta-decay neutrino events within ±500 s of either GW signal. This non-detection is used to constrain the electron anti-neutrino fluence and the total integrated luminosity of the astrophysical sources.
  • We report the results from a search in Super-Kamiokande for neutrino signals coincident with the first detected gravitational-wave events, GW150914 and GW151226, as well as LVT151012, using a neutrino energy range from 3.5 MeV to 100 PeV. We searched for coincident neutrino events within a time window of ±500 s around the gravitational-wave detection time. Four neutrino candidates are found for GW150914, and no candidates are found for GW151226. The remaining neutrino candidates are consistent with the expected background events. We calculated the 90% confidence level upper limits on the combined neutrino fluence for both gravitational-wave events, which depends onmore » event energy and topologies. Considering the upward-going muon data set (1.6 GeV–100 PeV), the neutrino fluence limit for each gravitational-wave event is 14–37 (19–50) cm{sup −2} for muon neutrinos (muon antineutrinos), depending on the zenith angle of the event. In the other data sets, the combined fluence limits for both gravitational-wave events range from 2.4 × 10{sup 4} to 7.0 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}.« less
  • On September 14, 2015 the Advanced LIGO detectors observed their first gravitational wave (GW) transient GW150914. This was followed by a second GW event observed on December 26, 2015. Both events were inferred to have arisen from the merger of black holes in binary systems. Such a system may emit neutrinos if there are magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the two black holes. With the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory we can search for neutrinos with energy Eν above 100 PeV from point like sources across the sky with equatorial declination from aboutmore » -65° to +60°, and, in particular, from a fraction of the 90% confidence-level inferred positions in the sky of GW150914 and GW151226. A targeted search for highly inclined extensive air showers, produced either by interactions of downward-going neutrinos of all flavors in the atmosphere or by the decays of tau leptons originating from tau-neutrino interactions in the Earth’s crust (Earth-skimming neutrinos), yielded no candidates in the Auger data collected within ±500 s around or 1 day after the coordinated universal time (UTC) of GW150914 and GW151226, as well as in the same search periods relative to the UTC time of the GW candidate event LVT151012. As a result, from the non-observation we constrain the amount of energy radiated in ultrahigh-energy neutrinos from such remarkable events.« less
  • We report the results of a Dark Energy Camera optical follow-up of the gravitational-wave (GW) event GW151226, discovered by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory detectors. Our observations cover 28.8 deg(2) of the localization region in the i and z bands (containing 3% of the BAYESTAR localization probability), starting 10 hr after the event was announced and spanning four epochs at 2–24 days after the GW detection. We achievemore » $$5\sigma $$ point-source limiting magnitudes of $$i\approx 21.7$$ and $$z\approx 21.5$$, with a scatter of 0.4 mag, in our difference images. Given the two-day delay, we search this area for a rapidly declining optical counterpart with $$\gtrsim 3\sigma $$ significance steady decline between the first and final observations. We recover four sources that pass our selection criteria, of which three are cataloged active galactic nuclei. The fourth source is offset by 5.8 arcsec from the center of a galaxy at a distance of 187 Mpc, exhibits a rapid decline by 0.5 mag over 4 days, and has a red color of $$i-z\approx 0.3$$ mag. These properties could satisfy a set of cuts designed to identify kilonovae. However, this source was detected several times, starting 94 days prior to GW151226, in the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (dubbed as PS15cdi) and is therefore unrelated to the GW event. Given its long-term behavior, PS15cdi is likely a Type IIP supernova that transitioned out of its plateau phase during our observations, mimicking a kilonova-like behavior. We comment on the implications of this detection for contamination in future optical follow-up observations.« less