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Title: In-situ , non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells

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USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Power Sources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 324; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-03 22:03:54; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7753
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Citation Formats

Schmidt, Robert D., and Sakamoto, Jeffrey. In-situ , non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells. Netherlands: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.062.
Schmidt, Robert D., & Sakamoto, Jeffrey. In-situ , non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.062.
Schmidt, Robert D., and Sakamoto, Jeffrey. Mon . "In-situ , non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.062.
title = {In-situ , non-destructive acoustic characterization of solid state electrolyte cells},
author = {Schmidt, Robert D. and Sakamoto, Jeffrey},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.062},
journal = {Journal of Power Sources},
number = C,
volume = 324,
place = {Netherlands},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.062

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Cited by: 5works
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  • Many Mg-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) have been developed and manufactured during the last decade as prospective light high-performance constructional materials. When a MMC is submitted to temperature changes (cooling down from the temperature of fabrication, cyclic temperature changes during operation of structural parts) thermal stresses arise at the interfaces owing to a considerable mismatch of the thermal expansion coefficient of the matrix and that of the reinforcement. Even slight temperature changes may produce thermal stresses which exceed the matrix yield stress, consequently, generating new dislocations at the interfaces causing microstructural changes and plastic deformation of the matrix. Long-term exposuremore » may also result in fatigue damage. It is noteworthy that the effect of temperature variations is similar to creep under non-stationary loading conditions. Acoustic emission (AE) has been observed during thermal cycling of Mg based MMCs. Since dislocation motion and microstructural damage are generally accepted to produce AE, it is possible by AE measurements to identify and to characterize the microstructural changes and to correlate them with temperature or other parameters. The dilatometry technique enables the degree of matrix plastic deformation which superposing the thermal expansion to be determined by measuring the shape changes during testing. The combination of both methods yields non-destructively, at any instant of the test, information on the structure and operating processes over the entire volume of the specimen. This can also provide valuable information for subsequent investigations by microscopy or internal friction. The object of this paper is to report on the recently developed, combined AE and dilatometry technique and its application in a structural evolution in Mg-based MMCs subjected to thermal cycling.« less
  • The functionalization of an array of eight, closely spaced ({approximately}1.2 {mu}m) Pt or Au microelectrodes each {approximately}50 {mu}m long, 2 {mu}m wide, and 0.1 {mu}m thick with redox-active WO{sub 3} and polyaniline and the electrochemical characterization of the WO{sub 3}/polyaniline junction are reported. Chips consisting of microfabricated WO{sub 3} covering three of the available eight microelectrodes have been analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. The remaining five microelectrodes are available for further derivatization with polyaniline or can function as counterelectrodes. By placing a counterelectrode and a Ag quasi-reference electrode directly on the microchip and by coating the assembly with a thinmore » film of poly(vinyl alcohol)/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solid polymeric electrolyte, the electrochemical system becomes self-contained. The solid polymer electrolyte is a good room-temperature H{sup +} conductor only when exposed to a H{sub 2}O-containing atmosphere. Complex impedance studies show as much as a 10{sup 3} change in H{sup +} conductivity from H{sub 2}O-saturated to H{sub 2}O-free gaseous atmosphere above the polymer electrolyte. The changes in conductivity of WO{sub 3} upon reduction or polyaniline upon oxidation allow demonstration of solid-state microelectrochemical transistors with these materials. The combination of WO{sub 3} and polyaniline on the chip allows demonstration of a microelectrochemical diode.« less
  • Molecular-level understanding of electrochemical processes occurring at electrode-electrolyte interfaces (EEI) is key to the rational development of high-performance and sustainable electrochemical technologies. This article reports the development and first application of solid-state in situ electrochemical probes to study redox and catalytic processes occurring at well-defined EEI generated using soft-landing of mass- and charge-selected cluster ions (SL). In situ electrochemical probes with excellent mass transfer properties are fabricated using carefully-designed nanoporous ionic liquid membranes. SL enables deposition of pure active species that are not obtainable with other techniques onto electrode surfaces with precise control over charge state, composition, and kinetic energy.more » SL is, therefore, a unique tool for studying fundamental processes occurring at EEI. For the first time using an aprotic electrochemical probe, the effect of charge state (PMo12O403-/2-) and the contribution of building blocks of Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) clusters to redox processes are characterized by populating EEI with novel POM anions generated by electrospray ionization and gas phase dissociation. Additionally, a proton conducting electrochemical probe has been developed to characterize the reactive electrochemistry (oxygen reduction activity) of bare Pt clusters (Pt40 ~1 nm diameter), thus demonstrating the capability of the probe for studying reactions in controlled gaseous environments. The newly developed in situ electrochemical probes combined with ion SL provide a versatile method to characterize the EEI in solid-state redox systems and reactive electrochemistry at precisely-defined conditions. This capability will advance molecular-level understanding of processes occurring at EEI that are critical to many energy-related technologies.« less
  • (Ce{sub 0.83}Sm{sub 0.17}){sub 1{minus}x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} (Ln = Pr, Tb, 0 {le} x {le} 0.1) solid electrolytes were prepared by a soft hydrothermal method at 260 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction were used to clarify the structure and morphologies of the crystalline powers. The average crystallite size observed in the TEM is in the range of 10--60 nm, close to those calculated by the Scherrer formula from X-ray patterns. The uniformly small particle size of the hydrothermally prepared materials allows sintering of the samples into highly dense ceramic pellets at 1,300--1,400 C, a significantly lower temperature, comparedmore » to that of 1,600--1,650 C required for samples prepared by solid-state techniques. The variation of the electrical conductivity with the partial pressure of oxygen, Po{sub 2}, in the range 0.21 to 10{sup {minus}24} atm at various temperatures was used to determine the electrolytic domain boundary (EDB) of (Ce{sub 0.83}Sm{sub 0.17}){sub 1{minus}x}(Tb/Pr){sub x}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} for 0 {le} x {le} 0.1. The EDB of Ce{sub 0.83}Sm{sub 0.17}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}} is {approximately}10{sup {minus}18} atm at 700 C. It is shown that neither Pr nor Tb doping has a significant effect on the EDB of Ce{sub 0.83}Sm{sub 0.17}O{sub 2{minus}{delta}}.« less