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Title: Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint

Abstract

Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
NREL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD)
OSTI Identifier:
1327210
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5D00-66847
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 2016 North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 18-20 September 2016, Denver, Colorado
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; distribution systems; photovoltaic systems; voltage regulation; Volt/VAr control; game theory; stability

Citation Formats

Zhou, Xinyang, Tian, Jie, Chen, Lijun, and Dall'Anese, Emiliano. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/NAPS.2016.7747940.
Zhou, Xinyang, Tian, Jie, Chen, Lijun, & Dall'Anese, Emiliano. Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint. United States. doi:10.1109/NAPS.2016.7747940.
Zhou, Xinyang, Tian, Jie, Chen, Lijun, and Dall'Anese, Emiliano. 2016. "Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint". United States. doi:10.1109/NAPS.2016.7747940. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1327210.
@article{osti_1327210,
title = {Local Voltage Control in Distribution Networks: A Game-Theoretic Perspective: Preprint},
author = {Zhou, Xinyang and Tian, Jie and Chen, Lijun and Dall'Anese, Emiliano},
abstractNote = {Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as well as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.},
doi = {10.1109/NAPS.2016.7747940},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Conference:
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  • Inverter-based voltage regulation is gaining importance to alleviate emerging reliability and power-quality concerns related to distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems. This paper seeks contribution in the domain of reactive power compensation by establishing stability of local Volt/VAr controllers. In lieu of the approximate linear surrogate used in the existing work, the paper establishes existence and uniqueness of an equilibrium point using nonlinear AC power flow model. Key to this end is to consider a nonlinear dynamical system with non-incremental local Volt/VAr control, cast the Volt/VAr dynamics as a game, and leverage the fixed-point theorem as wellmore » as pertinent contraction mapping argument. Numerical examples are provided to complement the analytical results.« less
  • This paper considers distribution networks fea- turing distributed energy resources, and designs incentive-based mechanisms that allow the network operator and end-customers to pursue given operational and economic objectives, while concurrently ensuring that voltages are within prescribed limits. Two different network-customer coordination mechanisms that require different amounts of information shared between the network operator and end-customers are developed to identify a solution of a well-defined social-welfare maximization prob- lem. Notably, the signals broadcast by the network operator assume the connotation of prices/incentives that induce the end- customers to adjust the generated/consumed powers in order to avoid the violation of the voltagemore » constraints. Stability of the proposed schemes is analytically established and numerically corroborated.« less
  • This paper considers distribution networks with distributed energy resources and discrete-rate loads, and designs an incentive-based algorithm that allows the network operator and the customers to pursue given operational and economic objectives, while concurrently ensuring that voltages are within prescribed limits. Four major challenges include: (1) the non-convexity from discrete decision variables, (2) the non-convexity due to a Stackelberg game structure, (3) unavailable private information from customers, and (4) different update frequency from two types of devices. In this paper, we first make convex relaxation for discrete variables, then reformulate the non-convex structure into a convex optimization problem together withmore » pricing/reward signal design, and propose a distributed stochastic dual algorithm for solving the reformulated problem while restoring feasible power rates for discrete devices. By doing so, we are able to statistically achieve the solution of the reformulated problem without exposure of any private information from customers. Stability of the proposed schemes is analytically established and numerically corroborated.« less
  • Local open-circuit voltage (Voc) distributions on amorphous and nanocrystalline mixed-phase silicon solar cells were measured using a scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) on the p layer of an n-i-p structure without the top ITO contact. During the measurement, the sample was illuminated with a laser beam that was used for the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Therefore, the surface potential measured by SKPM is the sum of the local Voc and the difference in workfunction between the p layer and the AFM tip. Comparing the SKPM and AFM images, we find that nanocrystallites aggregate in the amorphous matrix with an aggregationmore » size of {approx}0.5 ..mu..m in diameter, where many nanometer-size grains are clustered. The Voc distribution shows valleys in the nanocrystalline aggregation area. The transition from low to high Voc regions is a gradual change within a distance of about 1 ..mu..m. The minimum Voc value in the nanocrystalline clusters in the mixed-phase region is larger than the Voc of a nc-Si:H single-phase solar cell. These results could be due to lateral photo-charge redistribution between the two phases. We have also carried out local Voc measurements on mixed-phase SiGe:H alloy solar cells. The magnitudes of Voc in the amorphous and nanocrystalline regions are consistent with the J-V measurements.« less
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