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Title: Use of Ferrihydrite-Coated Pozzolana and Biogenic Green Rust to Purify Waste Water Containing Phosphate and Nitrate

Abstract

The activated sludge treatments combined to the addition of ferric chloride is commonly used to eliminate nitrate and phosphate from waste water in urban area. These processes that need costly infrastructures are not suitable for rural areas and passive treatments (lagoons, reed bed filters…) are more frequently performed. Reed bed filters are efficient for removing organic matter but are not suitable for treating phosphate and nitrate as well. Passive water treatments using various materials (hydroxyapatite, slag…) were already performed, but those allowing the elimination of both nitrate and phosphate are not actually available. The goal of this work is to identify the most suitable iron based materials for such treatments and to determine their optimal use conditions, in particular in hydrodynamic mode. The reactivity of the iron based minerals was measured either by using free particles in suspension or by depositing these particles on a solid substrate. Pouzzolana that is characterized by a porous sponge-like structure suits for settling a high amount of iron oxides. The experimental conditions enabling to avoid any ammonium formation when green rust encounters nitrate were determined within the framework of a full factorial design. The process is divided into two steps that will be performedmore » inside two separated reactors. Indeed, the presence of phosphate inhibits the reduction of nitrate by green rust and the dephosphatation process must precede the denitrification process. In order to remove phosphate, ferrihydrite coated pouzzolana is the best materials. The kinetics of reaction of green rust with nitrate is relatively slow and often leads to the formation of ammonium. The recommendation of the identified process is to favor the accumulation of nitrite in a first step, these species reacting much more quickly with green rust and do not transform into ammonium.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1327130
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-112581
Journal ID: ISSN 1877-9441; 48263; KP1704020
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Current Inorganic Chemistry; Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Ruby, Christian, Naille, Sébastien, Ona-Nguema, Georges, Morin, Guillaume, Mallet, Martine, Guerbois, Delphine, Barthélémy, Kévin, Etique, Marjorie, Zegeye, Asfaw, Zhang, Yuhai, Boumaïza, Hella, Al-Jaberi, Muayad, Renard, Aurélien, Noël, Vincent, Binda, Paul, Hanna, Khalil, Despas, Christelle, Abdelmoula, Mustapha, Kukkadapu, Ravi, Sarrias, Joseph, Albignac, Magali, Rocklin, Pascal, Nauleau, Fabrice, Hyvrard, Nathalie, and Génin, Jean-Marie. Use of Ferrihydrite-Coated Pozzolana and Biogenic Green Rust to Purify Waste Water Containing Phosphate and Nitrate. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2174/1877944106999160603125459.
Ruby, Christian, Naille, Sébastien, Ona-Nguema, Georges, Morin, Guillaume, Mallet, Martine, Guerbois, Delphine, Barthélémy, Kévin, Etique, Marjorie, Zegeye, Asfaw, Zhang, Yuhai, Boumaïza, Hella, Al-Jaberi, Muayad, Renard, Aurélien, Noël, Vincent, Binda, Paul, Hanna, Khalil, Despas, Christelle, Abdelmoula, Mustapha, Kukkadapu, Ravi, Sarrias, Joseph, Albignac, Magali, Rocklin, Pascal, Nauleau, Fabrice, Hyvrard, Nathalie, & Génin, Jean-Marie. Use of Ferrihydrite-Coated Pozzolana and Biogenic Green Rust to Purify Waste Water Containing Phosphate and Nitrate. United States. doi:10.2174/1877944106999160603125459.
Ruby, Christian, Naille, Sébastien, Ona-Nguema, Georges, Morin, Guillaume, Mallet, Martine, Guerbois, Delphine, Barthélémy, Kévin, Etique, Marjorie, Zegeye, Asfaw, Zhang, Yuhai, Boumaïza, Hella, Al-Jaberi, Muayad, Renard, Aurélien, Noël, Vincent, Binda, Paul, Hanna, Khalil, Despas, Christelle, Abdelmoula, Mustapha, Kukkadapu, Ravi, Sarrias, Joseph, Albignac, Magali, Rocklin, Pascal, Nauleau, Fabrice, Hyvrard, Nathalie, and Génin, Jean-Marie. Mon . "Use of Ferrihydrite-Coated Pozzolana and Biogenic Green Rust to Purify Waste Water Containing Phosphate and Nitrate". United States. doi:10.2174/1877944106999160603125459.
@article{osti_1327130,
title = {Use of Ferrihydrite-Coated Pozzolana and Biogenic Green Rust to Purify Waste Water Containing Phosphate and Nitrate},
author = {Ruby, Christian and Naille, Sébastien and Ona-Nguema, Georges and Morin, Guillaume and Mallet, Martine and Guerbois, Delphine and Barthélémy, Kévin and Etique, Marjorie and Zegeye, Asfaw and Zhang, Yuhai and Boumaïza, Hella and Al-Jaberi, Muayad and Renard, Aurélien and Noël, Vincent and Binda, Paul and Hanna, Khalil and Despas, Christelle and Abdelmoula, Mustapha and Kukkadapu, Ravi and Sarrias, Joseph and Albignac, Magali and Rocklin, Pascal and Nauleau, Fabrice and Hyvrard, Nathalie and Génin, Jean-Marie},
abstractNote = {The activated sludge treatments combined to the addition of ferric chloride is commonly used to eliminate nitrate and phosphate from waste water in urban area. These processes that need costly infrastructures are not suitable for rural areas and passive treatments (lagoons, reed bed filters…) are more frequently performed. Reed bed filters are efficient for removing organic matter but are not suitable for treating phosphate and nitrate as well. Passive water treatments using various materials (hydroxyapatite, slag…) were already performed, but those allowing the elimination of both nitrate and phosphate are not actually available. The goal of this work is to identify the most suitable iron based materials for such treatments and to determine their optimal use conditions, in particular in hydrodynamic mode. The reactivity of the iron based minerals was measured either by using free particles in suspension or by depositing these particles on a solid substrate. Pouzzolana that is characterized by a porous sponge-like structure suits for settling a high amount of iron oxides. The experimental conditions enabling to avoid any ammonium formation when green rust encounters nitrate were determined within the framework of a full factorial design. The process is divided into two steps that will be performed inside two separated reactors. Indeed, the presence of phosphate inhibits the reduction of nitrate by green rust and the dephosphatation process must precede the denitrification process. In order to remove phosphate, ferrihydrite coated pouzzolana is the best materials. The kinetics of reaction of green rust with nitrate is relatively slow and often leads to the formation of ammonium. The recommendation of the identified process is to favor the accumulation of nitrite in a first step, these species reacting much more quickly with green rust and do not transform into ammonium.},
doi = {10.2174/1877944106999160603125459},
journal = {Current Inorganic Chemistry},
number = 2,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 27 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jun 27 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • The reductive biotransformation of two Si-ferrihydrite (0.01 and 0.05 mole% Si) coprecipiates by Shewanella putrefaciens, strain CN32, was investigated in 1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid-buffered media (pH ~7) with lactate as the electron donor. Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (electron shuttle) that stimulates respiration was present in the media. Experiments were performed without and with PO43- (ranging from 1 to 20 mmol/L in media containing 50 mmol/L Fe). Our objectives were to define the combined effects of SiO44- and PO43- on the bioreducibility and biomineralization of ferrihydrites under anoxic conditions. Iron reduction was measured as a function of time, solids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)more » and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and aqueous solutions were analyzed for Si, P, Cl- and inorganic carbon. Both of the ferrihydrites were rapidly reduced regardless of the Si content. Si concentration had no effect on the reduction rate or mineralization products. Magnetite was formed in the absence of PO43- whereas carbonate green rust GR(CO32-) ([FeII(6-x)FeIIIx(OH)12]x+(CO32-)0.5x.yH2O) and vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2.8H2O], were formed when PO43- was present. GR(CO32-) dominated as a mineral product in samples with < 4 mmol/L PO43-. The Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio of GR(CO32-) varied with PO43- concentration; it was 2 in the 1 mmol/L PO43- and approached 1 in the 4- and 10-mmol/L PO43- samples. GR appeared to form by solid-state transformation of ferrihydrite. Medium PO43- concentration dictated the mechanism of transformation. In 1 mmol/L PO43- media, an intermediate Fe(II)/Fe(III) phase with structural Fe(II), which we tentatively assigned to a protomagnetite phase, slowly transformed to GR with time. In contrast, in medium with >4 mmol/L PO43-, a residual ferrihydrite with sorbed Fe2+ phase transformed to GR. Despite similar chemistries, PO43- was shown to have a profound effect on ferrihydrite biotransformations while that of SiO44- was minimal.« less
  • Mineralogical studies of different wastes of the sugar industry, mainly sugar cane bagasse ash and sugar cane straw ash, have shown that such by-products are likely to be pozzolanic. Their use in lime-pozzolana binders could become an interesting alternative for developing countries. This paper presents a study that was aimed at monitoring the reaction between lime and wastes of the sugar industry having pozzolanic properties by evaluating (1) content of calcium hydroxide, dependent on time; (2) development of the pore structure, dependent on time; (3) study on the reaction products at different stages; and (4) mechanical properties of hardened pastes.more » The presence of calcium hydroxide was confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis and thermogravimetric analysis of powder from samples of hydrated lime-pozzolana pastes. The reaction products in hydrated pastes were observed in a scanning electron microscope, and the pore structure was assessed using a mercury intrusion porosimeter. The results of the study show that sugar cane bagasse ash does not act like a reactive pozzolana, mainly due to the presence of unburned material and carbon, whereas sugar cane straw ash shows good pozzolanic activity comparable to that of rice husk ash.« less
  • During Hydroxysulfate green rust GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2}) oxidation, lepidocrocite and goethite were formed. The oxidation of GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) in the presence of phosphate ions, also involved the formation of poorly crystallized lepidocrocite but not that of goethite. The dissolution of lepidocrocite is inhibited by adsorption of phosphate ions as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The formation of the poorly crystallized protective layer against corrosion is effectively due to the phosphate ions which adsorb on the surface of lepidocrocite, and prevents it to turn into a well crystallized oxide.
  • The reaction of pozzolana with the lime liberated during the hydration process of Portland cement modifies some properties of cement and resulting concrete. This study aimed to investigate experimentally the change occurring in the phase composition and microstructure of pozzolanic cement pastes containing activated kaolinite clay. The artificial pozzolana (burnt kaolinite clay) were thermally activated by firing at 850 C for two hours. The ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was partially replaced by different amounts of activated kaolinite clay by weight. The changes in the electrical conductivity were reported during setting and hardening processes after gauging with water. The change occurringmore » in the phase composition and microstructure of cement pastes were investigated by differential thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results of this investigation show that, the thermal activated kaolinite clay prolonged the initial and final setting times and reduced the porosity, it also improved the microstructure of the formed hydrates by recrystallization of hydrated calcium silicates (mainly as CSH-(I)) together with the formation of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrate (mainly as C{sub 4}AH{sub 13}).« less
  • Studies were undertaken to produce reactive pozzolana i.e. metakaolin from four kaolinitic clays collected from different sources in India. The metakaolin produced from these clays at 700-800 deg. C show lime reactivity in between 10.5 to 11.5 N/mm{sup 2} which is equivalent to commercially available calcined clay Metacem-85. The microstructure of the metakaolin has been reported. The effect of addition of metakaolin up to 25% in the Portland cement mortars was investigated. An increase in compressive strength and decrease of porosity and pore diameter of cement mortars containing metakaolin (10%) was noted over the cement mortars without metakaolin. The hydrationmore » of metakaolin blended cement mortars was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The major hydraulic products like C-S-H and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} have been identified. Durability of the cement mortars with and without metakaolin was examined in different sulphate solutions. Data show better strength achievement in cement mortars containing 10% MK than the OPC mortars alone.« less