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Title: All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field

Abstract

Potential-induced degradation can cause significant power loss in modules if the appropriate precautions are not taken. In the first part of a new series in PV Tech Power on module failure, Peter Hacke and Steve Johnston assess the current state-of-the-art in detecting, avoiding and mitigating the worst effects of PID.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1326899
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5J00-66799
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Photovoltaics International; Journal Volume: 33
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; PID; potential-induced degradation test; IEC 62804-1

Citation Formats

Hacke, Peter, and Johnston, Steve. All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Hacke, Peter, & Johnston, Steve. All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field. United States.
Hacke, Peter, and Johnston, Steve. Thu . "All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1326899,
title = {All About PID - Testing and Avoidance in the Field},
author = {Hacke, Peter and Johnston, Steve},
abstractNote = {Potential-induced degradation can cause significant power loss in modules if the appropriate precautions are not taken. In the first part of a new series in PV Tech Power on module failure, Peter Hacke and Steve Johnston assess the current state-of-the-art in detecting, avoiding and mitigating the worst effects of PID.},
doi = {},
journal = {Photovoltaics International},
number = ,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • The use of photoionization detectors (PIDs) for field screening of soils for volatile organic contaminants has become a standard industry practice. PID screening data is generally utilized as a qualitative basis for selection of samples for laboratory analysis to quantify concentrations of specific contaminants of concern. Both qualitative field screening data and quantitative laboratory analytical data were reviewed for more than 100 hydrogeologic assessment sites in Ohio to evaluate controls on the effectiveness of field screening data. Assessment data evaluated was limited to sites at which the suspected contaminant source was a gasoline underground storage tanks system. In each case,more » a 10.0 eV (or greater) PID calibrated for benzene was used to screen soils which were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) by SW 846 method 8020. Controls on field screening which were evaluated for each site included (1) soil classification, (2) soil moisture, (3) weather conditions, (4) background levels, (5) equipment quality, (6) screening methodology, and (7) laboratory QA/QC. Statistical data analysis predictably indicated a general overestimate of total BTEX levels based on field screening (gasoline is approximately 25 weight percent BTEX). However, data locally indicated cases of both significant (i.e., more than an order of magnitude difference) over- and under-estimation of actual BTEX concentrations (i.e., quantitative laboratory data) by field screening data.« less
  • The influence of a digital PID voltage regulator on the transient performance of a synchronous machine is examined through a simulation study. The simulation model is described in Part I and the pertinent control algorithm is described in this paper. A dynamic variation of the weighting coefficients of the voltage regulator according to the variances of the manipulated output signals has been investigated. Simulation studies conducted on a micro-machine generating unit model under different types of system disturbance conditions show that the transient response of a generating unit having a digital PID regulator with dynamically changing weighting coefficients is superiormore » to that of the same unit when equipped with a conventional continuous acting regulator.« less
  • Amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius) were placed in two-chamber containers with different combinations of three contaminated sediments and a control sediment, and their distribution was determined after 2 or 3 d. Amphipods avoided the sediment with the highest PAH contamination and one of two sediments with moderate PAH concentrations. In the moderately contaminated sediment avoided by amphipods, the (avoidance) response was more sensitive than mortality as a biological indicator of unacceptable sediment contamination. The avoidance response in this case likely represents an early indication of potential mortality from sediment exposure. Population levels of amphipods in moderately to heavily PAH-contaminated sediments may bemore » influenced by a combination of avoidance behavior and toxicity/lethality.« less
  • The effects of intermittent chlorination and temperature selection on the movement of fish were studied in an integrated field and laboratory project on the New River at the Glen Lyn Power Plant in southwestern Virginia. Over a temperature range of 7 to 36 C, the total number of fish sampled from the intermittently chlorinated thermal effluent was lower than control values (P less than or equal to 0.09) when total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration were greater than or equal to 0.15 mg/liter. After seasonal variations were segregated into discrete intervals of field temperature and fish avoidance of TRC, a declinemore » in fish abundance in the chlorinated, heated discharge was observed within 95% confidence limits. In summer field temperatures of 27 to 30 C, fish avoided a TRC concentration that ranged from 0.19 to 0.28 mg/liter TRC; when temperatures were falling from 26 to 7 C, they avoided 0.23 to 0.24 mg/liter TRC. In most cases, laboratory-determined avoidance concentrations predicted accurately the TRC concentrations that would elicit the avoidance behavior of fish under natural field conditions. Based on published acute toxicity tests with intermittent chlorination, spotfin shiners and most other fish species generally avoided chlorien residuals 50% or less of the median lethal concentrations.« less