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Title: Evidence for compensatory photosynthetic and yield response of soybeans to aphid herbivory

Abstract

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an exotic species in North America that has been detected in 21 U.S. states and Canada, is a major pest for soybean that can reduce maximum photosynthetic capacity and yields. Our existing knowledge is based on relatively few studies that do not span a wide variety of environmental conditions, and often focus on relatively high and damaging population pressure. We examined the effects of varied populations and duration of soybean aphids on soybean photosynthetic rates and yield in two experiments. In a 2011 field study, we found that plants with low cumulative aphid days (CAD, less than 2,300) had higher yields than plants not experiencing significant aphid pressure, suggesting a compensatory growth response to low aphid pressure. This response did not hold at higher CAD, and yields declined. In a 2013 controlled-environment greenhouse study, soybean plants were well-watered and fertilized with nitrogen (N), and aphid populations were manipulated to reach moderate to high levels (8,000–50,000 CAD). Plants tolerated these population levels when aphids were introduced during the vegetative or reproductive phenological stages of the plant, showing no significant reduction in yield. Leaf N concentration and CAD were positively and significantly correlated with increasing ambientmore » photosynthetic rates. Our findings suggest that, given the right environmental conditions, modern soybean plants can withstand higher aphid pressure than previously assumed. Moreover, soybean plants also responded positively through a compensatory photosynthetic effect to moderate population pressure, contributing to stable or increased yield.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1326735
Report Number(s):
BNL-112414-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0022-0493; R&D Project: 21087; YN0100000
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Economic Entomology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0022-0493
Publisher:
Entomological Society of America - Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; plant-insect interaction; photosynthesis; yield; leaf gas exchange; host plant resistance

Citation Formats

Kucharik, Christopher J., Mork, Amelia C., Meehan, Timothy D., Serbin, Shawn P., Singh, Aditya, Townsend, Philip A., Whitney, Kaitlin Stack, and Gratton, Claudio. Evidence for compensatory photosynthetic and yield response of soybeans to aphid herbivory. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1093/jee/tow066.
Kucharik, Christopher J., Mork, Amelia C., Meehan, Timothy D., Serbin, Shawn P., Singh, Aditya, Townsend, Philip A., Whitney, Kaitlin Stack, & Gratton, Claudio. Evidence for compensatory photosynthetic and yield response of soybeans to aphid herbivory. United States. doi:10.1093/jee/tow066.
Kucharik, Christopher J., Mork, Amelia C., Meehan, Timothy D., Serbin, Shawn P., Singh, Aditya, Townsend, Philip A., Whitney, Kaitlin Stack, and Gratton, Claudio. 2016. "Evidence for compensatory photosynthetic and yield response of soybeans to aphid herbivory". United States. doi:10.1093/jee/tow066. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1326735.
@article{osti_1326735,
title = {Evidence for compensatory photosynthetic and yield response of soybeans to aphid herbivory},
author = {Kucharik, Christopher J. and Mork, Amelia C. and Meehan, Timothy D. and Serbin, Shawn P. and Singh, Aditya and Townsend, Philip A. and Whitney, Kaitlin Stack and Gratton, Claudio},
abstractNote = {The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an exotic species in North America that has been detected in 21 U.S. states and Canada, is a major pest for soybean that can reduce maximum photosynthetic capacity and yields. Our existing knowledge is based on relatively few studies that do not span a wide variety of environmental conditions, and often focus on relatively high and damaging population pressure. We examined the effects of varied populations and duration of soybean aphids on soybean photosynthetic rates and yield in two experiments. In a 2011 field study, we found that plants with low cumulative aphid days (CAD, less than 2,300) had higher yields than plants not experiencing significant aphid pressure, suggesting a compensatory growth response to low aphid pressure. This response did not hold at higher CAD, and yields declined. In a 2013 controlled-environment greenhouse study, soybean plants were well-watered and fertilized with nitrogen (N), and aphid populations were manipulated to reach moderate to high levels (8,000–50,000 CAD). Plants tolerated these population levels when aphids were introduced during the vegetative or reproductive phenological stages of the plant, showing no significant reduction in yield. Leaf N concentration and CAD were positively and significantly correlated with increasing ambient photosynthetic rates. Our findings suggest that, given the right environmental conditions, modern soybean plants can withstand higher aphid pressure than previously assumed. Moreover, soybean plants also responded positively through a compensatory photosynthetic effect to moderate population pressure, contributing to stable or increased yield.},
doi = {10.1093/jee/tow066},
journal = {Journal of Economic Entomology},
number = 3,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 4
}

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  • The objectives were to determine whether wide variation in fertilizer rates or type of growth medium would affect the response of soybeans, Glycine max 'Davis' exposed to chronic doses of ozone (O/sub 3/) in open-top field chambers. Responses to O/sub 3/ were compared for plants grown in the ground or in pots containing an artificial growth medium. In 1977, the yield of plants grown in pots containing soil, sand, and a mixture of perlite, peat moss, and vermiculite was greater than that of plants grown in the ground; in 1978, the reverse was true. However, the percentage yeild loss causedmore » by O/sub 3/ was not affected by the growth medium either year. Separate tests were made for potted plants that received different levels of fertilizer. At moderate fertilizer rates, the yield response to different doses of O/sub 3/ was not significantly affected by fertilizer rate for either year. In 1978, plants with no fertilizer added were severely stunted and even relatively high doses of O/sub 3/ did not further decrease yield. The results suggest that plant response to O/sub 3/ will be fairly uniform over a range of substrate types and fertilizer rates when edaphic conditions are adequate to insure normal plant growth. 17 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.« less
  • Three old-field communities of varying composition near Aiken, South Carolina, were used to test the hypothesis that phytophagous insects avoid consuming plants possessing the C/sub 4/ photosynthetic pathway and consume plants that possess only the C/sub 3/ pathway. The relative abundances of stable carbon isotopes in insect tissues, which indicate consumption of C/sub 3/ or C/sub 4/ plants, were used to determine if insects were consuming C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ plants in proportion to their abundance in the plant community. In one community, the carbon isotope ratio for insects was significantly less than that expected for proportional consumption andmore » indicated avoidance of C/sub 4/ species. Insect consumption of C/sub 4/ plants was approx. = 50% of that expected if insects were consuming C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ plants in proportion to their abundance. In the other two communities, the differences between observed and expected isotopic ratios were not significant. Levels of insect consumption of C/sub 4/ plants in these two communities were, respectively, approx. = 82% and approx. = 126% of those expected for proportional consumption. The results suggest that the degree of avoidance varies among plant communities.« less
  • In photosynthetic reaction centers, a quinone molecule, Q[sub B], is the terminal acceptor in light-induced electron transfer. The protonatable residues Glu-L212 and Asp-L213 have been implicated in the binding of Q[sub B] and in proton transfer to Q[sub B] anions generated by electron transfer from the primary quinone Q[sub A]. Here the authors report the details of the construction of the Ala-L212/Ala-L213 double mutant strain by site-specific mutagenesis and show that its photosynthetic incompetence is due to an inability to deliver protons to the Q[sub B] anions. They also report the isolation and biophysical characterization of a collection of revertantmore » and suppressor strains that have regained the photosynthetic phenotype. The compensatory mutations that restore function are diverse and show that neither Glu-L212 nor Asp-L213 is essential for efficient light-induced electron or proton transfer in Rhodobacter capsulatus. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • Coprolites composed of plant debris are common in Pennsylvanian-age coal balls. However, the coprolites themselves given no indication as to whether they were produced by herbivores or detritivores. In this report evidence that certain coprolites were produced by a highly specific kind of herbivore is presented. Many petioles of the marattialean tree-fern Psaronius chasei from the Calhoun Coal (Upper Pennsylvanian) of Illinois have large cavities filled with coprolites and disrupted plant tissue. The cavities are bordered by extensive proliferation of the cortical parenchyma. This proliferation closely resembles wound tissue produced by extant ferns and occurs only in petioles with coprolites.more » The cylindrical coprolites averaged 1.85 by 2.76 mm and are composed of the remains of plant tissues including sclerenchyma, gum sacs, and other cells identifiable as tissue from the petioles in which the coprolites occur. The plant-animal interaction represented by the wounded petioles is highly specific. No evidence of it has been found in any other kind of petiole (e.g., seed fern) or even in petioles of other species of Psaronius. Only petioles larger than 1.5 cm in diameter have wound tissue and coprolites.« less
  • Plant productivity responded to elevated CO{sub 2} more strongly in moderately grazed than in ungrazed or heavily grazed microcosms of artificial California grassland communities. Elevated CO{sub 2} slightly increased the productivity of unclipped and frequently clipped non-fertilized communities but increased productivity of the moderately clipped treatment by 31%. Fertilized communities showed an overall increase in productivity to elevated CO{sub 2} of 38% compared to a 18% increase for non-fertilized communities. Our results show that the relatively low fertility of many California grassland soils will constrain the productivity response to elevated CO{sub 2} but that moderate grazing may greatly increase thismore » CO{sub 2} response. These results indicate that carbon sink strength associated with growth plays an important role in determining vegetation responses to elevated CO{sub 2}.« less