skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation

Abstract

Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of the Greening the Grid introduces the evolution of power system planning with high levels of variable renewable generation.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
OSTI Identifier:
1326719
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-6A20-63035
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; Greening the Grid; flexibility; USAID; renewable; integration; grid; RE; demand response; strategy; planning

Citation Formats

Katz, Jessica, and Milligan, Michael. The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1326719.
Katz, Jessica, & Milligan, Michael. The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation. United States. doi:10.2172/1326719.
Katz, Jessica, and Milligan, Michael. Thu . "The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation". United States. doi:10.2172/1326719. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1326719.
@article{osti_1326719,
title = {The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation},
author = {Katz, Jessica and Milligan, Michael},
abstractNote = {Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of the Greening the Grid introduces the evolution of power system planning with high levels of variable renewable generation.},
doi = {10.2172/1326719},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind powermore » across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance in the EI system. Incorporating more details of renewables in expansion planning will inevitably increase the computational burden. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC) techniques are urgently needed for power system operation and planning optimization. As a scoping study task, this project tested some preliminary parallel computation techniques such as breaking down the simulation task into several sub-tasks based on chronology splitting or sample splitting, and then assigning these sub-tasks to different cores. Testing results show significant time reduction when a simulation task is split into several sub-tasks for parallel execution.« less
  • As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.
  • As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners.more » This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.« less
  • An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools tomore » manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.« less
  • Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.