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Title: Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

Abstract

In this paper, subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunneling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm –1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  2. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1326631
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-07ER46405
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Kim, Seyoon, Jang, Min Seok, Brar, Victor W., Tolstova, Yulia, Mauser, Kelly W., and Atwater, Harry A. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms12323.
Kim, Seyoon, Jang, Min Seok, Brar, Victor W., Tolstova, Yulia, Mauser, Kelly W., & Atwater, Harry A. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms12323.
Kim, Seyoon, Jang, Min Seok, Brar, Victor W., Tolstova, Yulia, Mauser, Kelly W., and Atwater, Harry A. Mon . "Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms12323. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1326631.
@article{osti_1326631,
title = {Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays},
author = {Kim, Seyoon and Jang, Min Seok and Brar, Victor W. and Tolstova, Yulia and Mauser, Kelly W. and Atwater, Harry A.},
abstractNote = {In this paper, subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunneling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm–1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms12323},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 7works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • We propose a dressed subwavelength metal slit structure, which is formed by adding a thin metallic grating near the slit entrance with a distance. The simulation computation by means of the finite-difference time-domain method shows that the transmissivity can be substantially enhanced by 30 times compared with the conventional metal slit structure. The transmission spectrum exhibits two characters of the Fabry-Perot resonance and a left-shift. The introduced grating has two effects: (1) more energy is collected from the incident plane, and (2) the effective dielectric region in the slit is extended to the region out of the entrance.
  • We measure the transmission of infra-red radiation through double-layer metal lms with periodic arrays of subwavelength holes. When the two metal lms are placed in su ciently close proximity, two types of transmission resonances emerge. For the surface plasmon mode, the electromagnetic eld is concentrated on the outer surface of the entire metallic layer stack. In contrast, for the guided mode the eld is con ned to the gap between the two metal layers. Our measurements indicate that as the two layers are laterally shifted from perfect alignment, the peak transmission frequency of the guided mode decreases signi cantly, whilemore » that of the surface plasmon mode remains largely unchanged, in agreement with numerical calculations.« less
  • We demonstrate experimentally the directional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a metal film by a subwavelength double slit under backside illumination, based on the interference of SPPs generated by the two slits. By varying the incident angle, the SPPs can be tunably directed into two opposite propagating directions with a predetermined splitting ratio. Under certain incident angle, unidirectional SPP excitation can be achieved. This compact directional SPP coupler is potentially useful for many on-chip applications. As an example, we show the integration of the double-slit couplers with SPP Bragg mirrors, which can effectively realize selective coupling of SPPsmore » into different ports in an integrated plasmonic chip.« less
  • Here we describe the optical transmission response of novel coatings with subwavelength metallic structures based on a quasi-open ring resonator design fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering. This offers a relatively simple approach to the fabrication of dense arrays of optically responsive subwavelength structures over large areas with an oriented two-dimensional array of parallel Au nanoshells. The cross-section of the individual lines is “L” shaped with an approximately 95 nm width, 75 nm height, and pitch of 140 nm to yield a resonant optical response in the visible/near infrared spectrum. Along the long axis of themore » shells, the geometry is wire-like and quasi-infinite in length compared to the cross-section. This highly anisotropic structure has a strongly polarization-dependent optical response. The coatings are characterized via optical transmission measurements as a function of wavelength, polarization, and angle are presented along with complementary numerical modeling results predicting the resonance shift with corresponding changes in fabrication parameters.« less
  • We describe a simple configuration in which the extraordinary optical transmission effect through subwavelength hole arrays in noble-metal films can be switched by the semiconductor-to-metal transition in an underlying thin film of vanadium dioxide. In these experiments, the transition is brought about by thermal heating of the bilayer film. The surprising reverse hysteretic behavior of the transmission through the subwavelength holes in the vanadium oxide suggest that this modulation is accomplished by a dielectric-matching condition rather than plasmon coupling through the bilayer film. The results of this switching, including the wavelength dependence, are qualitatively reproduced by a transfer matrix model.more » The prospects for effecting a similar modulation on a much faster time scale by using ultrafast laser pulses to trigger the semiconductor-to-metal transition are also discussed.« less