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Title: A simple primary amide for the selective recovery of gold from secondary resources

Abstract

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) such as mobile phones contains a plethora of metals of which gold is by far the most valuable. Herein a simple primary amide is described that achieves the selective separation of gold from a mixture of metals typically found in mobile phones by extraction into toluene from an aqueous HCl solution; unlike current processes, reverse phase transfer is achieved simply using water. Phase transfer occurs by dynamic assembly of protonated and neutral amides with [AuCl 4]– ions through hydrogen bonding in the organic phase, as shown by EXAFS, mass spectrometry measurements, and computational calculations, and supported by distribution coefficient analysis. In conclusion, the fundamental chemical understanding gained herein should be integral to the development of metal-recovery processes, in particular through the use of dynamic assembly processes to build complexity from simplicity.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1326545
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Angewandte Chemie (International Edition)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Angewandte Chemie (International Edition); Journal Volume: 55; Journal Issue: 40; Journal ID: ISSN 1433-7851
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Doidge, Euan D., Carson, Innis, Tasker, Peter A., Ellis, Ross J., Morrison, Carole A., and Love, Jason B. A simple primary amide for the selective recovery of gold from secondary resources. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/anie.201606113.
Doidge, Euan D., Carson, Innis, Tasker, Peter A., Ellis, Ross J., Morrison, Carole A., & Love, Jason B. A simple primary amide for the selective recovery of gold from secondary resources. United States. doi:10.1002/anie.201606113.
Doidge, Euan D., Carson, Innis, Tasker, Peter A., Ellis, Ross J., Morrison, Carole A., and Love, Jason B. 2016. "A simple primary amide for the selective recovery of gold from secondary resources". United States. doi:10.1002/anie.201606113. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1326545.
@article{osti_1326545,
title = {A simple primary amide for the selective recovery of gold from secondary resources},
author = {Doidge, Euan D. and Carson, Innis and Tasker, Peter A. and Ellis, Ross J. and Morrison, Carole A. and Love, Jason B.},
abstractNote = {Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) such as mobile phones contains a plethora of metals of which gold is by far the most valuable. Herein a simple primary amide is described that achieves the selective separation of gold from a mixture of metals typically found in mobile phones by extraction into toluene from an aqueous HCl solution; unlike current processes, reverse phase transfer is achieved simply using water. Phase transfer occurs by dynamic assembly of protonated and neutral amides with [AuCl4]– ions through hydrogen bonding in the organic phase, as shown by EXAFS, mass spectrometry measurements, and computational calculations, and supported by distribution coefficient analysis. In conclusion, the fundamental chemical understanding gained herein should be integral to the development of metal-recovery processes, in particular through the use of dynamic assembly processes to build complexity from simplicity.},
doi = {10.1002/anie.201606113},
journal = {Angewandte Chemie (International Edition)},
number = 40,
volume = 55,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
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  • The design of organic ligands to selectively remove and recover metal ions from aqueous solution is a new and important area of environmental inorganic chemistry. One approach to designing organic ligands for these purposes is to use biological systems as examples for selective metal ion complexation. Thus, the authors report results on the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis(catechol) linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS), and sulfonated 3.3-linear tris(catechol) amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands that are chemically bonded to modified 6% cross-linked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB) for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueousmore » solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity was dramatically shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1-3, while metal ion selectivity could be changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). Rates of removal and recovery of the Fe{sup 3+} ion with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6LICAMS and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads were also studied as well as relative equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies.« less
  • A method for estimating protein secondary structure from infrared spectra has been developed. The infrared spectra of H{sub 2}O solutions of 13 proteins of known crystal structure have been recorded and corrected for the spectral contribution of water in the amide I and II region by using the algorithm of Dousseau et al. This calibration set of proteins has been analyzed by using either a classical least-squares (CLS) method or the partial least-squares (PLS) method. The pure-structure spectra calculated by the classical least-squares method are in good agreement with spectra of poly(L-lysine) in the {alpha}-helix, {beta}-sheet, and undefined conformations. Themore » results show that the best agreement between the secondary structure determined by X-ray crystal-lography and that predicted by infrared spectroscopy is obtained when both the amide I and II bands are used to generate the calibration set, when the PLS method is used, and when it is assumed that the secondary structure of proteins is composed of only four types of structure: ordered and disordered {alpha}-helices, {beta}-sheet, and undefined conformation. Attempts to include turns in the secondary structure estimation have led to a loss of accuracy. The spectra of the calibration proteins were also recorded in {sup 2}H{sub 2}O solution. After correction for the contribution of the combination band of {sup 2}H{sub 2}O in the amide I{prime} band region, the spectra were analyzed with PLS, but the results were not as good as for the spectra obtained in H{sub 2}O, especially for the {alpha}-helical conformation.« less
  • The authors observed that the pH dependence of the binding of Au/sup 3 +/, Ag/sup +/, and Hg/sup 2 +/ to the algae Chlorella vulgaris is different than the binding of other metal ions. Between pH 5 and 7, a variety of metal ions bind strongly to the cell surface. Most of these algal-bound metal ions can be selectively desorbed by lowering the pH to 2; however, Au/sup 3 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/, and Ag/sup +/ are all bound strongly at pH 2. Addition of a strong ligand at different pHs is required to elute these ions from the algalmore » surface. Algal-bound gold and mercury can be selectively eluted by using mercaptoethanol. An elution scheme is demonstrated for the binding and selective recovery of Cu/sup 2 +/, Zn/sup 2 +/, Au/sup 3 +/, and Hg/sup 2 +/ from an equimolar mixture. 20 references, 2 figures.« less
  • Highlights: • Review of the main hydrometallurgical processes to recover yttrium. • Recovery of yttrium from primary sources. • Recovery of yttrium from e-waste and other types of waste. - Abstract: Yttrium is important rare earths (REs) used in numerous fields, mainly in the phosphor powders for low-energy lighting. The uses of these elements, especially for high-tech products are increased in recent years and combined with the scarcity of the resources and the environmental impact of the technologies to extract them from ores make the recycling waste, that contain Y and other RE, a priority. The present review summarized themore » main hydrometallurgical technologies to extract Y from ores, contaminated solutions, WEEE and generic wastes. Before to discuss the works about the treatment of wastes, the processes to retrieval Y from ores are discussed, since the processes are similar and derived from those already developed for the extraction from primary sources. Particular attention was given to the recovery of Y from WEEE because the recycle of them is important not only for economical point of view, considering its value, but also for environmental impact that this could be generated if not properly disposal.« less
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