skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays

Abstract

This article provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy. When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic fieldmore » direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. Lastly, the heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences
  2. Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research and Dept. of Space Science
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
1326071
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0008334; SC0008721; NNX10AE46G; NNX09AG29G; NNX09AB24G; AGS-1156056
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 790; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic rays; ISM: magnetic fields; Sun: heliosphere

Citation Formats

Zhang, Ming, Zuo, Pingbing, and Pogorelov, Nikolai. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/5.
Zhang, Ming, Zuo, Pingbing, & Pogorelov, Nikolai. Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/5.
Zhang, Ming, Zuo, Pingbing, and Pogorelov, Nikolai. Thu . "Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1326071.
@article{osti_1326071,
title = {Heliospheric influence on the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays},
author = {Zhang, Ming and Zuo, Pingbing and Pogorelov, Nikolai},
abstractNote = {This article provides a theory of using Liouville's theorem to map the anisotropy of TeV cosmic rays seen at Earth using the particle distribution function in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The ultimate source of cosmic ray anisotropy is the energy, pitch angle, and spatial dependence of the cosmic ray distribution function in the LISM. Because young nearby cosmic ray sources can make a special contribution to the cosmic ray anisotropy, the anisotropy depends on the source age, distance and magnetic connection, and particle diffusion of these cosmic rays, all of which make the anisotropy sensitive to the particle energy. When mapped through the magnetic and electric field of a magnetohydrodynamic model heliosphere, the large-scale dipolar and bidirectional interstellar anisotropy patterns become distorted if they are seen from Earth, resulting in many small structures in the observations. Best fits to cosmic ray anisotropy measurements have allowed us to estimate the particle density gradient and pitch angle anisotropies in the LISM. It is found that the heliotail, hydrogen deflection plane, and the plane perpendicular to the LISM magnetic field play a special role in distorting cosmic ray anisotropy. These features can lead to an accurate determination of the LISM magnetic field direction and polarity. The effects of solar cycle variation, the Sun's coronal magnetic field, and turbulence in the LISM and heliospheric magnetic fields are minor but clearly visible at a level roughly equal to a fraction of the overall anisotropy amplitude. Lastly, the heliospheric influence becomes stronger at lower energies. Below 1 TeV, the anisotropy is dominated by small-scale patterns produced by disturbances in the heliosphere.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/790/1/5},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 790,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 17 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Measurement of the Anisotropy of Cosmic-Ray Arrival Directions with Icecube
journal, July 2010


OBSERVATION OF ANISOTROPY IN THE ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS OF GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS AT MULTIPLE ANGULAR SCALES WITH IceCube
journal, September 2011


OBSERVATION OF ANISOTROPY IN THE GALACTIC COSMIC-RAY ARRIVAL DIRECTIONS AT 400 TeV WITH ICECUBE
journal, January 2012


The Large-Scale Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy as Observed with Milagro
journal, June 2009


The H.E.S.S. Survey of the Inner Galaxy in Very High Energy Gamma Rays
journal, January 2006

  • Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Bazer‐Bachi, A. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 636, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498013

Anisotropy and Corotation of Galactic Cosmic Rays
journal, October 2006


ON TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF THE MULTI-TeV COSMIC RAY ANISOTROPY USING THE TIBET III AIR SHOWER ARRAY
journal, February 2010


The modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the interplanetary medium
journal, February 1965


VOYAGER 1 NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE
journal, February 2014


VOYAGER 1 OBSERVATIONS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD AND THE TRANSITION FROM THE HELIOSHEATH
journal, March 2014


EVIDENCE FOR A SHOCK IN INTERSTELLAR PLASMA: VOYAGER 1
journal, October 2013


ANISOTROPY OF TeV COSMIC RAYS AND OUTER HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARIES
journal, December 2012


Anisotropic diffusion of Galactic cosmic ray protons and their steady-state azimuthal distribution
journal, November 2012


COMPARISONS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DIRECTIONS OBTAINED FROM THE IBEX RIBBON AND INTERSTELLAR POLARIZATIONS
journal, November 2010


PITCH ANGLE SCATTERING IN THE OUTER HELIOSHEATH AND FORMATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON
journal, December 2010


Local Magnetic Turbulence and TeV–PeV Cosmic Ray Anisotropies
journal, August 2012


Observation of the anisotropy of 10 TeV primary cosmic ray nuclei flux with the Super-Kamiokande-I detector
journal, March 2007


The Spatial Energy Spectrum of Magnetic Fields in Our Galaxy
journal, August 2004

  • Han, J. L.; Ferriere, K.; Manchester, R. N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 610, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/421760

An Estimate of the Nearby Interstellar Magnetic Field Using Neutral Atoms
journal, August 2011


PICK-UP IONS IN THE OUTER HELIOSHEATH: A POSSIBLE MECHANISM FOR THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXplorer RIBBON
journal, December 2009


The Effect of new Interstellar Medium Parameters on the Heliosphere and Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Interstellar Boundary
journal, March 2014


Gradient and curvature drifts in magnetic fields with arbitrary spatial variation
journal, December 1979

  • Isenberg, P. A.; Jokipii, J. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 234
  • DOI: 10.1086/157551

Cosmic-Ray Propagation. I. Charged Particles in a Random Magnetic Field
journal, November 1966

  • Jokipii, J. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 146
  • DOI: 10.1086/148912

Strangelets and the TeV–PeV cosmic-ray anisotropies
journal, October 2013


Deflection of the Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Flow Across the Heliospheric Interface
journal, March 2005


Magnetic Reconnection as the Cause of Cosmic ray Excess from the Heliospheric tail
journal, September 2010


Interplanetary Magnetic Field Line Mixing Deduced from Impulsive Solar Flare Particles
journal, March 2000

  • Mazur, J. E.; Mason, G. M.; Dwyer, J. R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 532, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/312561

Global Observations of the Interstellar Interaction from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX)
journal, October 2009


Anisotropic cosmic ray diffusion and gamma-ray production close to supernova remnants, with an application to W28
journal, December 2012

  • Nava, L.; Gabici, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 429, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts450

HELIOSPHERIC ASYMMETRIES AND 2-3 kHz RADIO EMISSION UNDER STRONG INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD CONDITIONS
journal, March 2009

  • Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Mitchell, Jeremy J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 695, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/L31

Probing Heliospheric Asymmetries with an MHD-Kinetic model
journal, February 2008

  • Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Zank, Gary P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 675, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/529547

INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER MEASUREMENTS AND MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE VICINITY OF THE HELIOPAUSE
journal, November 2011

  • Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Zank, Gary P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 742, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/742/2/104

Global Anisotropies in TeV Cosmic Rays Related to the Sun's Local Galactic Environment from IBEX
journal, February 2014


Cosmic-Ray Propagation and Interactions in the Galaxy
journal, November 2007


A Markov Stochastic Process Theory of Cosmic‐Ray Modulation
journal, March 1999

  • Zhang, Ming
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 513, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/306857