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Title: Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents

Abstract

Here, the electroreduction of Er 3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf) 3] and [Er(NTf 2) 3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er 3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er 3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er 3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er 0 deposit is challenging due to the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1326056
Report Number(s):
SAND-2016-5599J
Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069; RSCACL; 647403; TRN: US1700150
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
RSC Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 92; Journal ID: ISSN 2046-2069
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Small, Leo J., Sears, Jeremiah M., Lambert, Timothy N., Boyle, Timothy J., and Hess, Ryan F. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1039/C6RA15061F.
Small, Leo J., Sears, Jeremiah M., Lambert, Timothy N., Boyle, Timothy J., & Hess, Ryan F. Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents. United States. doi:10.1039/C6RA15061F.
Small, Leo J., Sears, Jeremiah M., Lambert, Timothy N., Boyle, Timothy J., and Hess, Ryan F. 2016. "Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents". United States. doi:10.1039/C6RA15061F. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1326056.
@article{osti_1326056,
title = {Electroreduction of Er 3+ in nonaqueous solvents},
author = {Small, Leo J. and Sears, Jeremiah M. and Lambert, Timothy N. and Boyle, Timothy J. and Hess, Ryan F.},
abstractNote = {Here, the electroreduction of Er3+ in propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylformamide, or a variety of quaternary ammonium ionic liquids (ILs) was investigated using [Er(OTf)3] and [Er(NTf2)3]. Systematic variation of the ILs' cation and anion, Er3+ salt, and electrode material revealed a disparity in electrochemical interactions not previously seen. For most ILs at a platinum electrode, cyclic voltammetry exhibits irreversible interactions between Er3+ salts and the electrode at potentials significantly less than the theoretical reduction potential for Er3+. Throughout all solvent–salt systems tested, a deposit could be formed on the electrode, though obtaining a high purity, crystalline Er0 deposit is challenging due to the extreme reactivity of the deposit and resulting chemical interactions, often resulting in the formation of a complex, amorphous solid–electrolyte interface that slowed deposition rates. Comparison of platinum, gold, nickel, and glassy carbon (GC) working electrodes revealed oxidation processes unique to the platinum surface. While no appreciable reduction current was observed on GC at the potentials investigated, deposits were seen on platinum, gold, and nickel electrodes.},
doi = {10.1039/C6RA15061F},
journal = {RSC Advances},
number = 92,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
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