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Title: Direct-write graded index materials realized in protein hydrogels

Abstract

Here, the ability to create optical materials with arbitrary index distributions would prove transformative for optics design and applications. However, current fabrication techniques for graded index (GRIN) materials rely on diffusion profiles and therefore are unable to realize arbitrary distribution GRIN design. Here, we demonstrate the laser direct writing of graded index structures in protein-based hydrogels using multiphoton lithography. We show index changes spanning a range of 10 –2, which is comparable with laser densified glass and polymer systems. Further, we demonstrate the conversion of these written density variation structures into SiO 2, opening up the possibility of transforming GRIN hydrogels to a wide range of material systems.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1325916
Report Number(s):
SAND-2016-9020J
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; APPLAB; 647348; TRN: US1700149
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; gels; diffraction grating; proteins; refractive index; silica

Citation Formats

Kaehr, Bryan, and Scrymgeour, David A. Direct-write graded index materials realized in protein hydrogels. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4963068.
Kaehr, Bryan, & Scrymgeour, David A. Direct-write graded index materials realized in protein hydrogels. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4963068.
Kaehr, Bryan, and Scrymgeour, David A. 2016. "Direct-write graded index materials realized in protein hydrogels". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4963068. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1325916.
@article{osti_1325916,
title = {Direct-write graded index materials realized in protein hydrogels},
author = {Kaehr, Bryan and Scrymgeour, David A.},
abstractNote = {Here, the ability to create optical materials with arbitrary index distributions would prove transformative for optics design and applications. However, current fabrication techniques for graded index (GRIN) materials rely on diffusion profiles and therefore are unable to realize arbitrary distribution GRIN design. Here, we demonstrate the laser direct writing of graded index structures in protein-based hydrogels using multiphoton lithography. We show index changes spanning a range of 10–2, which is comparable with laser densified glass and polymer systems. Further, we demonstrate the conversion of these written density variation structures into SiO2, opening up the possibility of transforming GRIN hydrogels to a wide range of material systems.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4963068},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 12,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
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