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Title: Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The deflagration-to-detonation transition scenario

Abstract

It has long been recognized that the neutrinos detected from the next core-collapse supernova in the Galaxy have the potential to reveal important information about the dynamics of the explosion and the nucleosynthesis conditions as well as allowing us to probe the properties of the neutrino itself. The neutrinos emitted from thermonuclear—type Ia—supernovae also possess the same potential, although these supernovae are dimmer neutrino sources. For the first time, we calculate the time, energy, line of sight, and neutrino-flavor-dependent features of the neutrino signal expected from a three-dimensional delayed-detonation explosion simulation, where a deflagration-to-detonation transition triggers the complete disruption of a near-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf. We also calculate the neutrino flavor evolution along eight lines of sight through the simulation as a function of time and energy using an exact three-flavor transformation code. We identify a characteristic spectral peak at ˜10 MeV as a signature of electron captures on copper. This peak is a potentially distinguishing feature of explosion models since it reflects the nucleosynthesis conditions early in the explosion. We simulate the event rates in the Super-K, Hyper-K, JUNO, and DUNE neutrino detectors with the SNOwGLoBES event rate calculation software and also compute the IceCube signal. Hyper-K willmore » be able to detect neutrinos from our model out to a distance of ˜10 kpc. Here, at 1 kpc, JUNO, Super-K, and DUNE would register a few events while IceCube and Hyper-K would register several tens of events.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
  2. Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
  3. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
OSTI Identifier:
1325194
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0006417
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; neutrinos; thermonuclear supernova

Citation Formats

Wright, Warren P., Nagaraj, Gautam, Kneller, James P., Scholberg, Kate, and Seitenzahl, Ivo R. Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The deflagration-to-detonation transition scenario. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.94.025026.
Wright, Warren P., Nagaraj, Gautam, Kneller, James P., Scholberg, Kate, & Seitenzahl, Ivo R. Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The deflagration-to-detonation transition scenario. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.94.025026.
Wright, Warren P., Nagaraj, Gautam, Kneller, James P., Scholberg, Kate, and Seitenzahl, Ivo R. 2016. "Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The deflagration-to-detonation transition scenario". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.94.025026. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1325194.
@article{osti_1325194,
title = {Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The deflagration-to-detonation transition scenario},
author = {Wright, Warren P. and Nagaraj, Gautam and Kneller, James P. and Scholberg, Kate and Seitenzahl, Ivo R.},
abstractNote = {It has long been recognized that the neutrinos detected from the next core-collapse supernova in the Galaxy have the potential to reveal important information about the dynamics of the explosion and the nucleosynthesis conditions as well as allowing us to probe the properties of the neutrino itself. The neutrinos emitted from thermonuclear—type Ia—supernovae also possess the same potential, although these supernovae are dimmer neutrino sources. For the first time, we calculate the time, energy, line of sight, and neutrino-flavor-dependent features of the neutrino signal expected from a three-dimensional delayed-detonation explosion simulation, where a deflagration-to-detonation transition triggers the complete disruption of a near-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf. We also calculate the neutrino flavor evolution along eight lines of sight through the simulation as a function of time and energy using an exact three-flavor transformation code. We identify a characteristic spectral peak at ˜10 MeV as a signature of electron captures on copper. This peak is a potentially distinguishing feature of explosion models since it reflects the nucleosynthesis conditions early in the explosion. We simulate the event rates in the Super-K, Hyper-K, JUNO, and DUNE neutrino detectors with the SNOwGLoBES event rate calculation software and also compute the IceCube signal. Hyper-K will be able to detect neutrinos from our model out to a distance of ˜10 kpc. Here, at 1 kpc, JUNO, Super-K, and DUNE would register a few events while IceCube and Hyper-K would register several tens of events.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.94.025026},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 2,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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  • The delayed detonation model describes the observational properties of the majority of Type Ia supernovae very well. Using numerical data from a three-dimensional deflagration model for Type Ia supernovae, the intermittency of the turbulent velocity field and its implications on the probability of a deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) transition are investigated. From structure functions of the turbulent velocity fluctuations, we determine intermittency parameters based on the log-normal and the log-Poisson models. The bulk of turbulence in the ash regions appears to be less intermittent than predicted by the standard log-normal model and the She-Leveque model. On the other hand, the analysis ofmore » the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame front by Roepke suggests a much higher probability of large velocity fluctuations on the grid scale in comparison to the log-normal intermittency model. Following Pan et al., we computed probability density functions for a DDT for the different distributions. The determination of the total number of regions at the flame surface, in which DDTs can be triggered, enables us to estimate the total number of events. Assuming that a DDT can occur in the stirred flame regime, as proposed by Woosley et al., the log-normal model would imply a delayed detonation between 0.7 and 0.8 s after the beginning of the deflagration phase for the multi-spot ignition scenario used in the simulation. However, the probability drops to virtually zero if a DDT is further constrained by the requirement that the turbulent velocity fluctuations reach about 500 km s{sup -1}. Under this condition, delayed detonations are only possible if the distribution of the velocity fluctuations is not log-normal. From our calculations follows that the distribution obtained by Roepke allow for multiple DDTs around 0.8 s after ignition at a transition density close to 1 x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}.« less
  • We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations.more » Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} for a 1 Z {circle_dot} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M {circle_dot} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.« less
  • We explore the effects of the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) density on the production of {sup 56}Ni in thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosions (Type Ia supernovae). Within the DDT paradigm, the transition density sets the amount of expansion during the deflagration phase of the explosion and therefore the amount of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) material produced. We employ a theoretical framework for a well-controlled statistical study of two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear SNe with randomized initial conditions that can, with a particular choice of transition density, produce a similar average and range of {sup 56}Ni masses to those inferred from observations.more » Within this framework, we utilize a more realistic 'simmered' white dwarf progenitor model with a flame model and energetics scheme to calculate the amount of {sup 56}Ni and NSE material synthesized for a suite of simulated explosions in which the transition density is varied in the range (1-3) x10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}. We find a quadratic dependence of the NSE yield on the log of the transition density, which is determined by the competition between plume rise and stellar expansion. By considering the effect of metallicity on the transition density, we find the NSE yield decreases by 0.055 {+-} 0.004 M {sub sun} for a 1 Z{sub sun} increase in metallicity evaluated about solar metallicity. For the same change in metallicity, this result translates to a 0.067 {+-} 0.004 M{sub sun} decrease in the {sup 56}Ni yield, slightly stronger than that due to the variation in electron fraction from the initial composition. Observations testing the dependence of the yield on metallicity remain somewhat ambiguous, but the dependence we find is comparable to that inferred from some studies.« less