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Title: Feasibility of time-lapse VSP monitoring at the Aquistore CO 2 storage site using a distributed acoustic sensing system

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USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-10-04 09:56:11; Journal ID: ISSN 1750-5836
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Citation Formats

Harris, Kyle, White, Don, Melanson, Dave, Samson, Claire, and Daley, Thomas M. Feasibility of time-lapse VSP monitoring at the Aquistore CO 2 storage site using a distributed acoustic sensing system. Netherlands: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.04.016.
Harris, Kyle, White, Don, Melanson, Dave, Samson, Claire, & Daley, Thomas M. Feasibility of time-lapse VSP monitoring at the Aquistore CO 2 storage site using a distributed acoustic sensing system. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.04.016.
Harris, Kyle, White, Don, Melanson, Dave, Samson, Claire, and Daley, Thomas M. 2016. "Feasibility of time-lapse VSP monitoring at the Aquistore CO 2 storage site using a distributed acoustic sensing system". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.04.016.
title = {Feasibility of time-lapse VSP monitoring at the Aquistore CO 2 storage site using a distributed acoustic sensing system},
author = {Harris, Kyle and White, Don and Melanson, Dave and Samson, Claire and Daley, Thomas M.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.04.016},
journal = {International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control},
number = C,
volume = 50,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2016,
month = 7

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.04.016

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Cited by: 2works
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  • The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO 2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO 2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO 2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO 2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will hostmore » the injected CO 2 has been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m 3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO 2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO 2. Prior to the onset of CO 2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO 2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO 2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO 2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO 2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less
  • A time-lapse Offset Vertical Seismic Profile (OVSP) data set was acquired as part of a subsurface monitoring program for geologic sequestration of CO 2. The storage site at Cranfield, near Natchez, Mississippi, is part of a detailed area study (DAS) site for geologic carbon sequestration operated by the U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB). The DAS site includes three boreholes, an injection well and two monitoring wells. The project team selected the DAS site to examine CO 2 sequestration multiphase fluid flow and pressure at the interwell scale in a brine reservoir. The time-lapse (TL) OVSPmore » was part of an integrated monitoring program that included well logs, crosswell seismic, electrical resistance tomography and 4D surface seismic. The goals of the OVSP were to detect the CO 2 induced change in seismic response, give information about the spatial distribution of CO 2 near the injection well and to help tie the high-resolution borehole monitoring to the 4D surface data. The VSP data were acquired in well CFU 31-F1, which is the ~3200 m deep CO 2 injection well at the DAS site. A preinjection survey was recorded in late 2009 with injection beginning in December 2009, and a post injection survey was conducted in Nov 2010 following injection of about 250 kT of CO 2. The sensor array for both surveys was a 50-level, 3-component, Sercel MaxiWave system with 15 m (49 ft) spacing between levels. The source for both surveys was an accelerated weight drop, with different source trucks used for the two surveys. Consistent time-lapse processing was applied to both data sets. Time-lapse processing generated difference corridor stacks to investigate CO 2 induced reflection amplitude changes from each source point. Corridor stacks were used for amplitude analysis to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for each shot point. Spatial variation in reflectivity (used to ‘map’ the plume) was similar in magnitude to the corridor stacks but, due to relatively lower S/N, the results were less consistent and more sensitive to processing and therefore are not presented. We examined the overall time-lapse repeatability of the OVSP data using three methods, the NRMS and Predictability (Pred) measures of Kragh and Christie (2002) and the signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) method of Cantillo (2011). Because time-lapse noise was comparable to the observed change, multiple methods were used to analyze data reliability. The reflections from the top and base reservoir were identified on the corridor stacks by correlation with a synthetic response generated from the well logs. A consistent change in the corridor stack amplitudes from pre- to post-CO 2 injection was found for both the top and base reservoir reflections on all ten shot locations analyzed. In addition to the well-log synthetic response, a finite-difference elastic wave propagation model was built based on rock/fluid properties obtained from well logs, with CO 2 induced changes guided by time-lapse crosswell seismic tomography (Ajo-Franklin, et al., 2013) acquired at the DAS site. Time-lapse seismic tomography indicated that two reservoir zones were affected by the flood. The modeling established that interpretation of the VSP trough and peak event amplitudes as reflectivity from the top and bottom of reservoir is appropriate even with possible tuning effects. Importantly, this top/base change gives confidence in an interpretation that these changes arise from within the reservoir, not from bounding lithology. The modeled time-lapse change and the observed field data change from 10 shotpoints are in agreement for both magnitude and polarity of amplitude change for top and base of reservoir. Therefore, we conclude the stored CO 2 has been successfully detected and, furthermore, the observed seismic reflection change can be applied to Cranfield’s 4D surface seismic for spatially delineating the CO 2/brine interface.« less
  • In this work we begin to examine the feasibility of using time-lapse seismic methods-specifically the vertical seismic profiling (VSP) method-for monitoring changes in hydrate accumulations that are predicted to occur during production of natural gas.
  • Two successive transient electromagnetic surveys were carried out over an underground gas storage site in France. The idea was to monitor changes in the gas bubble from the differences in the data. If successful, the new methodology could help to reduce the number of monitoring wells and finally reduce costs. Preliminary 3D modeling indicated that the resistivity changes caused by movements of the gas/water contact should be detectable in the electric field transients provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is at least 100:1. The surveys were performed with the TEAMEX multichannel acquisition system, adapted from a seismics system. The highly redundantmore » data were analyzed by calculating the relative differences in the electric field transients. The differences were common-midpoint, sorted and spatially stacked. Another approach was the calculation of electric field time derivatives in a log-log domain, to eliminate static shift effects which are present in the data. Even though the data quality is excellent from a classical point of view, neither of the two approaches reveals changes in the data which might be caused by changes in the gas reservoir. In future applications to monitoring, transmitters and receivers should be installed permanently, and the transmitter input waveform should be monitored continuously, to avoid some of the problems encountered here. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio will have to be further increased by at least one order of magnitude.« less
  • Successful geological storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) require efficient monitoring of the migration of CO2 plume during and after large-scale injection in order to verify the containment of the injected CO2 within the target formation and to evaluate potential leakage risk. Field studies have shown that surface and cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be a useful tool in imaging and characterizing solute transport in heterogeneous subsurface. In this synthetic study, we have coupled a 3-D multiphase flow model with a parallel 3-D time-lapse ERT inversion code to explore the feasibility of using time-lapse ERT for simultaneously monitoringmore » the migration of CO2 plume in deep saline formation and potential brine intrusion into shallow fresh water aquifer. Direct comparisons of the inverted CO2 plumes resulting from ERT with multiphase flow simulation results indicate the ERT could be used to delineate the migration of CO2 plume. Detailed comparisons on the locations, sizes and shapes of CO2 plume and intruded brine plumes suggest that ERT inversion tends to underestimate the area review of the CO2 plume, but overestimate the thickness and total volume of the CO2 plume. The total volume of intruded brine plumes is overestimated as well. However, all discrepancies remain within reasonable ranges. Our study suggests that time-lapse ERT is a useful monitoring tool in characterizing the movement of injected CO2 into deep saline aquifer and detecting potential brine intrusion under large-scale field injection conditions.« less