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Title: Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08)

Abstract

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be produced using solar-thermal energy in two-stage reactions of water and carbon dioxide, respectively, over certain metal oxide materials. The most active materials observed experimentally for these processes are complex mixtures of ferrite and zirconia based solids, and it is not clear how far the ferrites, the zirconia, or a solid solution between the two participate in the change of oxidation state during the cycling. Identification of the key phases in the redox material that enable splitting is of paramount importance to developing a working model of the materials. A three-pronged approach was adopted here: computer modeling to determine thermodynamically favorable materials compositions, bench reactor testing to evaluate materials’ performance, and in-situ characterization of reactive materials to follow phase changes and identify the phases active for splitting. For the characterization and performance evaluation thrusts, cobalt ferrites were prepared by co-precipitation followed by annealing at 1400 °C. An in-situ X-ray diffraction capability was developed and tested, allowing phase monitoring in real time during thermochemical redox cycling. Key observations made for an un-supported cobalt ferrite include: 1) ferrite phases partially reduce to wustite upon heating to 1400 °C in helium; 2) exposing the material to air atmore » 1100 °C causes immediate re-oxidation; 3) the re-oxidized material may be thermally reduced at 1400 °C under inert; 4) exposure of a reduced material to CO2 results in gradual re-oxidation at 1100 °C, but minimization of background O2-levels is essential; 5) even after several redox cycles, the lattice parameters of the ferrites remain constant, indicating that irreversible phase separation does not occur, at least over the first five cycles; 6) substituting chemical (hydrogen) reduction for thermal reduction resulted in formation of a CoFe metallic alloy. Materials were also evaluated for their CO2-splitting performance in bench reactor systems utilizing chemical reduction in place of thermal reduction. These tests lead to the following general conclusions: 1) despite over-reduction of the cobalt ferrite phase to CoFe alloy on chemical reduction, splitting of CO2 still occurs; 2) the kinetics of chemical reduction follow the sequence: un-supported < ZrO2-supported < yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ)-supported ferrite; 3) ferrite/YSZ re-oxidizes faster than ferrite/ZrO2 under CO2 in the range 400 – 700 °C. The temperature and pressure regimes in which the thermal reduction and water-splitting steps are thermodynamically favorable in terms of the enthalpy and entropy of oxide reduction, were determined. These metrics represent a useful design goal for any proposed water-splitting cycle. Applying this theoretical framework to available thermodynamic data, it was shown that none of the 105 binary oxide redox couples that were screened possess both energetically favorable reduction and oxidation steps. However, several driving forces, including low pressure and a large positive solid-state entropy of reduction of the oxide, have the potential to enable thermodynamically-favored two-step cycles.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1324649
Report Number(s):
SAND2008-7655
259939
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; 752591
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Coker, Eric Nicholas, Rodriguez, Mark A., Ambrosini, Andrea, Stumpf, Roland Rudolph, Stechel, Ellen Beth, Wolverton, Chris, and Meredig, Bryce. Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08). United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.2172/1324649.
Coker, Eric Nicholas, Rodriguez, Mark A., Ambrosini, Andrea, Stumpf, Roland Rudolph, Stechel, Ellen Beth, Wolverton, Chris, & Meredig, Bryce. Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08). United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1324649
Coker, Eric Nicholas, Rodriguez, Mark A., Ambrosini, Andrea, Stumpf, Roland Rudolph, Stechel, Ellen Beth, Wolverton, Chris, and Meredig, Bryce. 2008. "Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08)". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1324649. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324649.
@article{osti_1324649,
title = {Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08)},
author = {Coker, Eric Nicholas and Rodriguez, Mark A. and Ambrosini, Andrea and Stumpf, Roland Rudolph and Stechel, Ellen Beth and Wolverton, Chris and Meredig, Bryce},
abstractNote = {Hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be produced using solar-thermal energy in two-stage reactions of water and carbon dioxide, respectively, over certain metal oxide materials. The most active materials observed experimentally for these processes are complex mixtures of ferrite and zirconia based solids, and it is not clear how far the ferrites, the zirconia, or a solid solution between the two participate in the change of oxidation state during the cycling. Identification of the key phases in the redox material that enable splitting is of paramount importance to developing a working model of the materials. A three-pronged approach was adopted here: computer modeling to determine thermodynamically favorable materials compositions, bench reactor testing to evaluate materials’ performance, and in-situ characterization of reactive materials to follow phase changes and identify the phases active for splitting. For the characterization and performance evaluation thrusts, cobalt ferrites were prepared by co-precipitation followed by annealing at 1400 °C. An in-situ X-ray diffraction capability was developed and tested, allowing phase monitoring in real time during thermochemical redox cycling. Key observations made for an un-supported cobalt ferrite include: 1) ferrite phases partially reduce to wustite upon heating to 1400 °C in helium; 2) exposing the material to air at 1100 °C causes immediate re-oxidation; 3) the re-oxidized material may be thermally reduced at 1400 °C under inert; 4) exposure of a reduced material to CO2 results in gradual re-oxidation at 1100 °C, but minimization of background O2-levels is essential; 5) even after several redox cycles, the lattice parameters of the ferrites remain constant, indicating that irreversible phase separation does not occur, at least over the first five cycles; 6) substituting chemical (hydrogen) reduction for thermal reduction resulted in formation of a CoFe metallic alloy. Materials were also evaluated for their CO2-splitting performance in bench reactor systems utilizing chemical reduction in place of thermal reduction. These tests lead to the following general conclusions: 1) despite over-reduction of the cobalt ferrite phase to CoFe alloy on chemical reduction, splitting of CO2 still occurs; 2) the kinetics of chemical reduction follow the sequence: un-supported < ZrO2-supported < yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ)-supported ferrite; 3) ferrite/YSZ re-oxidizes faster than ferrite/ZrO2 under CO2 in the range 400 – 700 °C. The temperature and pressure regimes in which the thermal reduction and water-splitting steps are thermodynamically favorable in terms of the enthalpy and entropy of oxide reduction, were determined. These metrics represent a useful design goal for any proposed water-splitting cycle. Applying this theoretical framework to available thermodynamic data, it was shown that none of the 105 binary oxide redox couples that were screened possess both energetically favorable reduction and oxidation steps. However, several driving forces, including low pressure and a large positive solid-state entropy of reduction of the oxide, have the potential to enable thermodynamically-favored two-step cycles.},
doi = {10.2172/1324649},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1324649}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2008},
month = {11}
}