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Title: Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants

Abstract

Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have high, negative environmental impacts due to refrigerant charge leaks from the system and their corresponding high global warming potential. Thus, many efforts are in progress to obtain suitable low GWP alternative refrigerants and more environmentally friendly systems for the future. In addition, the system’s life cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a widespread metric proposed for the evaluation of the system’s environmental impact.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1324200
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2016; Journal ID: ISSN 0948-3349
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; alternative refrigerant; environmental impact; GWP; heat pumps; LCCP; residential HVAC; supermarket refrigeration

Citation Formats

Beshr, Mohamed, Aute, Vikrant, Abdelaziz, Omar, Fricke, Brian, and Radermacher, Reinhard. Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1186-6.
Beshr, Mohamed, Aute, Vikrant, Abdelaziz, Omar, Fricke, Brian, & Radermacher, Reinhard. Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants. United States. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1186-6.
Beshr, Mohamed, Aute, Vikrant, Abdelaziz, Omar, Fricke, Brian, and Radermacher, Reinhard. 2016. "Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants". United States. doi:10.1007/s11367-016-1186-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1324200.
@article{osti_1324200,
title = {Potential emission savings from refrigeration and air conditioning systems by using low GWP refrigerants},
author = {Beshr, Mohamed and Aute, Vikrant and Abdelaziz, Omar and Fricke, Brian and Radermacher, Reinhard},
abstractNote = {Refrigeration and air conditioning systems have high, negative environmental impacts due to refrigerant charge leaks from the system and their corresponding high global warming potential. Thus, many efforts are in progress to obtain suitable low GWP alternative refrigerants and more environmentally friendly systems for the future. In addition, the system’s life cycle climate performance (LCCP) is a widespread metric proposed for the evaluation of the system’s environmental impact.},
doi = {10.1007/s11367-016-1186-6},
journal = {The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment},
number = ,
volume = 2016,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Consequently, the interest in using low GWP refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) and new refrigerant blends is increasing. In this study, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of four supermarket refrigeration systems: a transcritical CO 2 booster system, a cascade CO 2/N-40 system, a combined secondary circuit with central DX N-40/L-40 system, and a baseline multiplex direct expansion system utilizing R-404A and N-40. The study is performed for different climatesmore » within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, further analyses are presented such as parametric, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses to study the impact of different system parameters on the LCCP.« less
  • Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCPmore » of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.« less