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Title: Emerging Sensor and I&C Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants

Abstract

This paper presents the findings from a survey of emerging technologies in the field of instrumentation and controls (I&C). The survey findings give an overview of the state-of-the-art in selected technology focus areas for industrial, research, or scientific applications that are relevant to nuclear power plant I&C systems, and discuss potential regulatory impact for safety-related applications. Four technology focus areas are selected for review: Sensors and Measurement Systems; Radiation Hardness of Microprocessors and other Integrated Circuits; Diagnostics and Prognostics Systems; and High-Integrity Software. It is concluded that, while there have been considerable advances in digital I&C hardware, advances in software engineering have not kept pace with hardware. The authors anticipate advances in hardweare (e.g., more accurate sensors, sophisticated on-line diagnostics, advances in rad-hard electronics) to influence some regulatory revisions (e.g., surveillance requirements, margins, calibration intervals). However, the state-of-the-art in software engineering has not advanced enough to warrant significant changes in the current position in software review requirements.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
1324035
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 5th International Topical Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Controls, and Human Machine Interface Technology, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 20061112, 20061116
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
sensors; emerging technologies; instrumentation; nuclear power; software

Citation Formats

Korsah, Kofi, Wood, Richard Thomas, Freer, Eva B, and Antonescu, Christina E. Emerging Sensor and I&C Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants. United States: N. p., 2006. Web.
Korsah, Kofi, Wood, Richard Thomas, Freer, Eva B, & Antonescu, Christina E. Emerging Sensor and I&C Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants. United States.
Korsah, Kofi, Wood, Richard Thomas, Freer, Eva B, and Antonescu, Christina E. Sun . "Emerging Sensor and I&C Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1324035,
title = {Emerging Sensor and I&C Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants},
author = {Korsah, Kofi and Wood, Richard Thomas and Freer, Eva B and Antonescu, Christina E},
abstractNote = {This paper presents the findings from a survey of emerging technologies in the field of instrumentation and controls (I&C). The survey findings give an overview of the state-of-the-art in selected technology focus areas for industrial, research, or scientific applications that are relevant to nuclear power plant I&C systems, and discuss potential regulatory impact for safety-related applications. Four technology focus areas are selected for review: Sensors and Measurement Systems; Radiation Hardness of Microprocessors and other Integrated Circuits; Diagnostics and Prognostics Systems; and High-Integrity Software. It is concluded that, while there have been considerable advances in digital I&C hardware, advances in software engineering have not kept pace with hardware. The authors anticipate advances in hardweare (e.g., more accurate sensors, sophisticated on-line diagnostics, advances in rad-hard electronics) to influence some regulatory revisions (e.g., surveillance requirements, margins, calibration intervals). However, the state-of-the-art in software engineering has not advanced enough to warrant significant changes in the current position in software review requirements.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2006}
}

Conference:
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  • This paper presents the findings from a survey of emerging technologies in the field of instrumentation and controls (I and C). The survey findings give an overview of the state-of-the-art in selected technology focus areas for industrial, research, or scientific applications that are relevant to nuclear power plant I and C systems, and discuss potential regulatory impact for safety-related applications. Four technology focus areas are selected for review: Sensors and Measurement Systems; Radiation Hardness of Microprocessors and other Integrated Circuits; Diagnostics and Prognostics Systems; and High-Integrity Software. It is concluded that, while there have been considerable advances in digital Imore » and C hardware, advances in software engineering have not kept pace with hardware. The authors anticipate advances in hardware (e.g., more accurate sensors, sophisticated on-line diagnostics, advances in rad-hard electronics) to influence some regulatory revisions (e.g., surveillance requirements, margins, calibration intervals). However, the state-of-the-art in software engineering has not advanced enough to warrant significant changes in the current position in software review requirements. (authors)« less
  • As part of the Light Water Reactor and Sustainability (LWRS) program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, material aging and degradation research is currently geared to support the long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) as they move beyond their initial 40 year licenses. The goal of this research is to provide information so that NPPs can develop aging management programs (AMPs) to address replacement and monitoring needs as they look to operate for 20 years, and in some cases 40 years, beyond their initial operating lifetimes. For cable insulation and jacket materials thatmore » support instrument, control, and safety systems, accelerated aging data are needed to determine priorities in cable aging management programs. Before accelerated thermal and radiation aging of harvested, representative cable insulation and jacket materials, the benchmark performance of a new test capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was evaluated for temperatures between 70 and 135 C, dose rates between 100 and 500 Gy/h, and accumulated doses up to 20 kGy, Samples that were characterized and are representative of current materials in use were harvested from the Callaway NPP near Fulton, Missouri, and the San Onofre NPP north of San Diego, California. From the Callaway NPP, a multiconductor control rod cable manufactured by Boston Insulated Wire (BIW), with a Hypalon/ chorolosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) jacket and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) insulation, was harvested from the auxiliary space during a planned outage in 2013. This cable was placed into service when the plant was started in 1984. From the San Onofre NPP, a Rockbestos Firewall III (FRIII) cable with a Hypalon/ CSPE jacket with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation was harvested from an on-site, climate-controlled storage area. This conductor, which was never placed into service, was procured around 2007 in anticipation of future operation that did not occur. Benchmark aging for both jacket and insulation material was carried out in air at a temperature of 125 C or in uniform 140 Gy/h gamma irradiation over a period of 60 days. Their mechanical properties over the course of their exposures were compared with reference data from comparable cable jacket/insulation compositions and aging conditions. For both accelerated thermal and radiation aging, it was observed that the mechanical properties for the Callaway BIW control rod cable were consistent with those previously measured. However, for the San Onofre Rockbestos FRIII, there was an observable functional difference for accelerated thermal aging at 125 C. Details on possible sources for this difference and plans for resolving each source are given in this paper.« less
  • As part of the Light Water Reactor and Sustainability (LWRS) program in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy, material aging and degradation research is currently geared to support the long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) as they move beyond their initial 40 year licenses. The goal of this research is to provide information so that NPPs can develop aging management programs (AMPs) to address replacement and monitoring needs as they look to operate for 20 years, and in some cases 40 years, beyond their initial operating lifetimes. For cable insulation and jacket materials thatmore » support instrument, control, and safety systems, accelerated aging data are needed to determine priorities in cable aging management programs. Before accelerated thermal and radiation aging of harvested, representative cable insulation and jacket materials, the benchmark performance of a new test capability at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was evaluated for temperatures between 70 and 135°C, dose rates between 100 and 500 Gy/h, and accumulated doses up to 20 kGy, Samples that were characterized and are representative of current materials in use were harvested from the Callaway NPP near Fulton, Missouri, and the San Onofre NPP north of San Diego, California. From the Callaway NPP, a multiconductor control rod cable manufactured by Boston Insulated Wire (BIW), with a Hypalon/ chorolosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) jacket and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) insulation, was harvested from the auxiliary space during a planned outage in 2013. This cable was placed into service when the plant was started in 1984. From the San Onofre NPP, a Rockbestos Firewall III (FRIII) cable with a Hypalon/ CSPE jacket with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation was harvested from an on-site, climate-controlled storage area. This conductor, which was never placed into service, was procured around 2007 in anticipation of future operation that did not occur. Benchmark aging for both jacket and insulation material was carried out in air at a temperature of 125°C or in uniform 140 Gy/h gamma irradiation over a period of 60 days. Their mechanical properties over the course of their exposures were compared with reference data from comparable cable jacket/insulation compositions and aging conditions. For both accelerated thermal and radiation aging, it was observed that the mechanical properties for the Callaway BIW control rod cable were consistent with those previously measured. However, for the San Onofre Rockbestos FRIII, there was an observable functional difference for accelerated thermal aging at 125°C. Details on possible sources for this difference and plans for resolving each source are given in this paper.« less
  • Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant`s risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I&C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF).more » We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I&C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment`s reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I&C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located.« less
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