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Title: Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century: FF AEROSOL EFFECT ON GLOBAL NPP IS SMALL

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Institute for Climate and Atmospheric Science, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds UK
  2. School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds UK
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1322426
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 43; Journal Issue: 15; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2016-09-08 11:10:28; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

O'Sullivan, M., Rap, A., Reddington, C. L., Spracklen, D. V., Gloor, M., and Buermann, W. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century: FF AEROSOL EFFECT ON GLOBAL NPP IS SMALL. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2016GL068965.
O'Sullivan, M., Rap, A., Reddington, C. L., Spracklen, D. V., Gloor, M., & Buermann, W. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century: FF AEROSOL EFFECT ON GLOBAL NPP IS SMALL. United States. doi:10.1002/2016GL068965.
O'Sullivan, M., Rap, A., Reddington, C. L., Spracklen, D. V., Gloor, M., and Buermann, W. 2016. "Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century: FF AEROSOL EFFECT ON GLOBAL NPP IS SMALL". United States. doi:10.1002/2016GL068965.
@article{osti_1322426,
title = {Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia since the turn of the century: FF AEROSOL EFFECT ON GLOBAL NPP IS SMALL},
author = {O'Sullivan, M. and Rap, A. and Reddington, C. L. and Spracklen, D. V. and Gloor, M. and Buermann, W.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/2016GL068965},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 15,
volume = 43,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1002/2016GL068965

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  • With the rapid development of the economy, the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission from China since 2000 is of increasing concern. In this study, we estimate the annual SO{sub 2} emission in China after 2000 using a technology-based methodology specifically for China. From 2000 to 2006, total SO{sub 2} emission in China increased by 53%, from 21.7 Tg to 33.2 Tg, at an annual growth rate of 7.3%. Emissions from power plants are the main sources of SO{sub 2} in China and they increased from 10.6 Tg to 18.6 Tg in the same period. Geographically, emission from north China increasedmore » by 85%, whereas that from the south increased by only 28%. The emission growth rate slowed around 2005, and emissions began to decrease after 2006 mainly due to the wide application of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in power plants in response to a new policy of China's government. This paper shows that the trend of estimated SO{sub 2} emission in China is consistent with the trends of SO{sub 2} concentration and acid rain pH and frequency in China, as well as with the increasing trends of background SO{sub 2} and sulfate concentration in East Asia. A longitudinal gradient in the percentage change of urban SO{sub 2} concentration in Japan is found during 2000-2007, indicating that the decrease of urban SO{sub 2} is lower in areas close to the Asian continent. This implies that the transport of increasing SO{sub 2} from the Asian continent partially counteracts the local reduction of SO{sub 2} emission downwind. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) products of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are found to be highly correlated with the surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in East Asia. Using MODIS AOD data as a surrogate of SSR, we found that China and East Asia excluding Japan underwent a continuous dimming after 2000, which is in line with the dramatic increase in SO{sub 2} emission in East Asia. The trends of AOD from both satellite retrievals and model over East Asia are also consistent with the trend of SO2 emission in China, especially during the second half of the year, when sulfur contributes the largest fraction of AOD. The arrested growth in SO{sub 2} emissions since 2006 is also reflected in the decreasing trends of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations, acid rain pH values and frequencies, and AOD over East Asia.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeastmore » China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.« less
  • The authors use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model (GCTM) to study the impact of fossil fuel emissions of reactive nitrogen compounds in different regions of the troposphere. The role NO[sub x] (NO + NO[sub 2]) plays in the oxidation reactions in the troposphere has been known for some time. The sources of these compounds as well as other biochemically reactive nitrogen compounds is not well known. This is an attempt to model fossil fuel emissions to see how well it describes measured reactive nitrogen compounds. The model follows NO[sub x], HNO[sub 3], and PAN, as inmore » some sense surrogates for insoluble inorganic, soluble inorganic, and reservoir organic NO[sub y] species. Results of the model calculations are compared with measurements scattered globally to assess the possible fossil fuel source term.« less