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Title: Ultrahigh sensitivity of anomalous Hall effect sensor based on Cr-doped Bi 2Te 3 topological insulator thin films

Abstract

Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was recently discovered in magnetic element-doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption and high efficiency spintronics and electronics. This discovery broadens the family of Hall sensors. In this paper, AHE sensors based on Cr-doped Bi 2Te 3 topological insulator thin films are studied with two thicknesses (15 and 65 nm). It is found, in both cases, that ultrahigh Hall sensitivity can be obtained in Cr-doped Bi 2Te 3. Hall sensitivity reaches 1666 Ω/T in the sensor with the 15 nm TI thin film, which is higher than that of the conventional semiconductor HE sensor. The AHE of 65 nm sensors is even stronger, which causes the sensitivity increasing to 2620 Ω/T. Furthermore, after comparing Cr-doped Bi 2Te 3 with the previously studied Mn-doped Bi 2Te 3 TI Hall sensor, the sensitivity of the present AHE sensor shows about 60 times higher in 65 nm sensors. Furthermore, the implementation of AHE sensors based on a magnetic-doped TI thin film indicates that the TIs are good candidates for ultrasensitive AHE sensors.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
  2. Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1321967
Report Number(s):
IS-J-9028
Journal ID: ISSN 0018-9464
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11358
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Magnetics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 52; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0018-9464
Publisher:
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Magnetics Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; sensitivity; Anomalous Hall effect sensor; topological insulators; thin films; temperature sensors; Hall effect; conductivity; charge carrier density; temperature measurement; magnetic hysteresis

Citation Formats

Ni, Y., Zhang, Z., Nlebedim, I. C., and Jiles, D. C.. Ultrahigh sensitivity of anomalous Hall effect sensor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2016.2519512.
Ni, Y., Zhang, Z., Nlebedim, I. C., & Jiles, D. C.. Ultrahigh sensitivity of anomalous Hall effect sensor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films. United States. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2016.2519512.
Ni, Y., Zhang, Z., Nlebedim, I. C., and Jiles, D. C.. 2016. "Ultrahigh sensitivity of anomalous Hall effect sensor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films". United States. doi:10.1109/TMAG.2016.2519512. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1321967.
@article{osti_1321967,
title = {Ultrahigh sensitivity of anomalous Hall effect sensor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films},
author = {Ni, Y. and Zhang, Z. and Nlebedim, I. C. and Jiles, D. C.},
abstractNote = {Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was recently discovered in magnetic element-doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption and high efficiency spintronics and electronics. This discovery broadens the family of Hall sensors. In this paper, AHE sensors based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator thin films are studied with two thicknesses (15 and 65 nm). It is found, in both cases, that ultrahigh Hall sensitivity can be obtained in Cr-doped Bi2Te3. Hall sensitivity reaches 1666 Ω/T in the sensor with the 15 nm TI thin film, which is higher than that of the conventional semiconductor HE sensor. The AHE of 65 nm sensors is even stronger, which causes the sensitivity increasing to 2620 Ω/T. Furthermore, after comparing Cr-doped Bi2Te3 with the previously studied Mn-doped Bi2Te3 TI Hall sensor, the sensitivity of the present AHE sensor shows about 60 times higher in 65 nm sensors. Furthermore, the implementation of AHE sensors based on a magnetic-doped TI thin film indicates that the TIs are good candidates for ultrasensitive AHE sensors.},
doi = {10.1109/TMAG.2016.2519512},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Magnetics},
number = 7,
volume = 52,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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Cited by: 2works
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  • Hall-effect (HE) sensors based on high-quality Mn-doped Bi 2Te 3 topological insulator (TI) thin films have been systematically studied in this paper. Improvement of Hall sensitivity is found after doping the magnetic element Mn into Bi 2Te 3. The sensors with low Mn concentrations, Mn xBi 2-xTe 3, x = 0.01 and 0.08 show the linear behavior of Hall resistance with sensitivity about 5 Ω/T. And their Hall sensitivity shows weak dependence on temperature. For sensors with high Mn concentration (x = 0.23), the Hall resistance with respect to magnetic field shows a hysteretic behavior. Moreover, its sensitivity shows almostmore » eight times as high as that of the HE sensors with low Mn concentration. The highest sensitivity can reach 43 Ω/T at very low magnetic field. This increase of Hall sensitivity is caused by the occurrence of anomalous HE (AHE) after ferromagnetic phase transition. Our work indicates that the magnetic-element-doped TIs with AHE are good candidates for HE sensors.« less
  • Material defects remain as the main bottleneck to the progress of topological insulators (TIs). In particular, efforts to achieve thin TI samples with dominant surface transport have always led to increased defects and degraded mobilities, thus making it difficult to probe the quantum regime of the topological surface states. Here, by utilizing a novel buffer layer scheme composed of an In 2Se 3/(Bi 0.5In 0.5) 2Se 3 heterostructure, we introduce a quantum generation of Bi 2Se 3 films with an order of magnitude enhanced mobilities than before. Furthermore, this scheme has led to the first observation of the quantum Hallmore » effect in Bi 2Se 3.« less
  • We study the evolution of quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect for a Z{sub 2} topological insulator (TI) thin films in a proximity induced magnetic phase by a realistic layered k·p model with interlayer coupling. We examine three different magnetic configurations in which ferromagnetic (FM) layer(s) is added either from one side (FM-TI), from both sides (FM-TI-FM), or homogeneously distributed (magnetically doped) in a TI slab. We map out the thickness-dependent topological phase diagram under various experimental conditions. The critical magnetic exchange energy for the emergence of QAH effect in the latter two cases decreases monotonically with increasing number of quintuplemore » layers (QLs), while it becomes surprisingly independent of the film thickness in the former case. The gap size of the emergent QAH insulator depends on the non-magnetic “parent” gap of the TI thin film and is tuned by the FM exchange energy, opening a versatile possibility to achieve room-temperature QAH insulator in various topological nanomaterials. Finally, we find that the emergent spin-texture in the QAH effect is very unconventional, non-“hedgehog” type; and it exhibits a chiral out-of-plane spin-flip texture within the same valence band which is reminiscent of dynamical “skyrmion” pattern, except our results are in the momentum space.« less
  • We demonstrate the van der Waals epitaxy of the topological insulator compound Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on the ferromagnetic insulator Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. The layers are oriented with (001)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(001)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and (110)Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}||(100)Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6}. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation of a sharp interface. At low temperatures, bilayers consisting of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} on Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} exhibit a large anomalous Hall effect (AHE). Tilted field studies of the AHE indicate that the easy axis lies along the c-axis of the heterostructure, consistent with magnetization measurements in bulk Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{submore » 6}. The 61 K Curie temperature of Cr{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}Te{sub 6} and the use of near-stoichiometric materials may lead to the development of spintronic devices based on the AHE.« less