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Title: Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods

Abstract

Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (H ci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (B r) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH) max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m 2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the αmore » phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition. As a result, higher Ti compositions did not display the preferred spinodal microstructure, explaining their inferior magnetic properties.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)
  2. Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1321911
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1359365
Report Number(s):
IS-J-9003
Journal ID: ISSN 0304-8853; PII: S0304885316307971
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11358; E0005573
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 420; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0304-8853
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; alnico; directional solidification; permanent magnets; transmission electron microscopy

Citation Formats

Zou, Min, Johnson, Francis, Zhang, Wanming, Zhao, Qi, Rutkowski, Stephen F., Zhou, Lin, and Kramer, Matthew J. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.06.091.
Zou, Min, Johnson, Francis, Zhang, Wanming, Zhao, Qi, Rutkowski, Stephen F., Zhou, Lin, & Kramer, Matthew J. Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.06.091.
Zou, Min, Johnson, Francis, Zhang, Wanming, Zhao, Qi, Rutkowski, Stephen F., Zhou, Lin, and Kramer, Matthew J. Tue . "Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.06.091. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1321911.
@article{osti_1321911,
title = {Processing of alnico permanent magnets by advanced directional solidification methods},
author = {Zou, Min and Johnson, Francis and Zhang, Wanming and Zhao, Qi and Rutkowski, Stephen F. and Zhou, Lin and Kramer, Matthew J.},
abstractNote = {Advanced directional solidification methods have been used to produce large (>15 cm length) castings of Alnico permanent magnets with highly oriented columnar microstructures. In combination with subsequent thermomagnetic and draw thermal treatment, this method was used to enable the high coercivity, high-Titanium Alnico composition of 39% Co, 29.5% Fe, 14% Ni, 7.5% Ti, 7% Al, 3% Cu (wt%) to have an intrinsic coercivity (Hci) of 2.0 kOe, a remanence (Br) of 10.2 kG, and an energy product (BH)max of 10.9 MGOe. These properties compare favorably to typical properties for the commercial Alnico 9. Directional solidification of higher Ti compositions yielded anisotropic columnar grained microstructures if high heat extraction rates through the mold surface of at least 200 kW/m2 were attained. This was achieved through the use of a thin walled (5 mm thick) high thermal conductivity SiC shell mold extracted from a molten Sn bath at a withdrawal rate of at least 200 mm/h. However, higher Ti compositions did not result in further increases in magnet performance. Images of the microstructures collected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal a majority α phase with inclusions of secondary αγ phase. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the α phase has a spinodally decomposed microstructure of FeCo-rich needles in a NiAl-rich matrix. In the 7.5% Ti composition the diameter distribution of the FeCo needles was bimodal with the majority having diameters of approximately 50 nm with a small fraction having diameters of approximately 10 nm. The needles formed a mosaic pattern and were elongated along one <001> crystal direction (parallel to the field used during magnetic annealing). Cu precipitates were observed between the needles. Regions of abnormal spinodal morphology appeared to correlate with secondary phase precipitates. The presence of these abnormalities did not prevent the material from displaying superior magnetic properties in the 7.5% Ti composition. As a result, higher Ti compositions did not display the preferred spinodal microstructure, explaining their inferior magnetic properties.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jmmm.2016.06.091},
journal = {Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials},
number = C,
volume = 420,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 05 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Tue Jul 05 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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