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Title: GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

Abstract

Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO 2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y -1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO 2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y -1 of CO 2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m -2 y -1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO 2, H 2O, HOD, CH 4, N 2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and developmore » DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO 2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1321708
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-26740
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Planetary Sciences; Climate Carbon Tropics Forests CO2 Water

Citation Formats

Dubey, Manvendra Krishna. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1321708.
Dubey, Manvendra Krishna. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings. United States. doi:10.2172/1321708.
Dubey, Manvendra Krishna. 2016. "GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings". United States. doi:10.2172/1321708. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1321708.
@article{osti_1321708,
title = {GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings},
author = {Dubey, Manvendra Krishna},
abstractNote = {Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).},
doi = {10.2172/1321708},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspirationmore » and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?« less
  • Because of their proven adverse effects on human health and vegetation, and also considering their influence over the local and regional climate, inhalable fine particles (PM2.5) and NO 2, SO 2, and O 3 have been collected at the ARM site located in Manacapuru, Amazon, Brazil, as a part of the GoAmazon 2014/5 project. PM2.5 samples were analyzed through gravimetry, black carbon transmittance, elemental composition by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, and ionic concentration (cations) by ion chromatography. NO 2 and SO 2 samples were analyzed by ion chromatography, whereas O3 samples were analyzed through ultraviolet-vis spectrophotometry. Sampling of both particulatemore » and gaseous pollutants took place during the two intensive operation periods (IOP1 from February to March 2014, and IOP2 from August to October 2014). Results are interpreted both separately and as a whole with the specific goal of identifying compounds that could affect the population’s health and/or could act as cloud condensation nuclei. Chemical analysis supports the elucidation of the possible origins, transport mechanisms, health effects, and main effects of the assessed pollutants in those environments« less
  • In areas where biogenic emissions are oxidized in the presence of anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2, NOx, and black carbon, it has become increasingly apparent that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is substantially enhanced. Research is urgently needed to elucidate fundamental processes of natural and anthropogenically influenced VOC oxidation and the contribution of these processes to SOA formation. GoAmazon 2014/15 afforded study of the chemical transformations in the region downwind of Manaus, Brazil, where local biogenic VOC emissions are high, and their chemical oxidation can be studied both inside and outside of the urbanmore » plume to differentiate the role of anthropogenic influence on secondary aerosol formation during oxidation of these natural VOC emissions. To understand the connection between primary biogenic VOC emissions and their secondary products that form aerosols, we made time-resolved molecular level measurements by deploying a Semi-Volatile Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) and a sequential filter sampler during two intensive operational periods (IOPs) of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. The SV-TAG measured semi-volatile organic compounds in both the gas and particle phases and the sequential filter sampler collected aerosols on quartz fiber filters in four-hour increments used for offline analysis. SV-TAG employed novel online derivatization that provided chemical speciation of highly oxygenated or functionalized compounds that comprise a substantial fraction of secondary organic aerosols, yet are poorly characterized. It also provided partitioning of these compounds between the vapor and particle phases at sufficient time resolution to define the importance of competing atmospheric processes. These measurements were supported by offline analysis of the filters using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF-MS) using both electron impact (EI) and soft vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ionization with derivatization. Speciated chemical data from SV-TAG and filter measurements were used to elucidate the relative importance of potential oxidation pathways by providing detailed information on the product distribution from atmospheric reactions and the quantification of known tracers for various oxidation pathways. Together, these techniques provided unequivocal molecular identification of a wide range of atmospheric organic compounds spanning the volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile phases. This level of chemical characterization provided insight into the chemical and physical processes that control the atmospheric oxidation of biogenic VOC and subsequent formation of SOA.« less
  • The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the twomore » factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.« less
  • Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous yearsmore » will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.« less