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Title: Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [3]
  1. Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen the Netherlands, CCMAR - Centro de Ciências do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Faro Portugal
  2. CCMAR - Centro de Ciências do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, Faro Portugal
  3. Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen the Netherlands
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1321030
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1321032
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Aquaculture Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 7; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-06-12 03:03:43; Journal ID: ISSN 1355-557X
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Country of Publication:
Country unknown/Code not available
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Mota, Vasco C., Martins, Catarina I. M., Eding, Ep H., Canário, Adelino V. M., and Verreth, Johan A. J.. Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Country unknown/Code not available: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1111/are.13184.
Mota, Vasco C., Martins, Catarina I. M., Eding, Ep H., Canário, Adelino V. M., & Verreth, Johan A. J.. Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). Country unknown/Code not available. doi:10.1111/are.13184.
Mota, Vasco C., Martins, Catarina I. M., Eding, Ep H., Canário, Adelino V. M., and Verreth, Johan A. J.. Mon . "Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )". Country unknown/Code not available. doi:10.1111/are.13184.
@article{osti_1321030,
title = {Cortisol and testosterone accumulation in a low pH recirculating aquaculture system for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss )},
author = {Mota, Vasco C. and Martins, Catarina I. M. and Eding, Ep H. and Canário, Adelino V. M. and Verreth, Johan A. J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1111/are.13184},
journal = {Aquaculture Research},
number = 7,
volume = 48,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
year = {Mon Aug 29 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 29 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1111/are.13184

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  • Species differences in physiological and biochemical attributes exist even among closely related species and may underlie species-specific sensitivity to toxicants. Rainbow trout (RT) are more sensitive than brook trout (BT) to the teratogenic effects of selenium (Se), but it is not known whether all tissues exhibit this pattern of vulnerability. In this study, primary cultures of RT and BT adrenocortical cells were exposed to selenite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) to compare cell viability and ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion in the two fish species. Cortisol, the primary stress hormone in fish, facilitates maintenance of homeostasis when fish are exposed tomore » stressors, including toxicants. Cell viability was not affected by Se, but selenite impaired cortisol secretion, while Se-Met did not (RT and BT EC{sub 50} > 2000 mg/L). RT cells were more sensitive (EC{sub 50} = 8.7 mg/L) to selenite than BT cells (EC{sub 50} = 90.4 mg/L). To identify the targets where Se disrupts cortisol synthesis, selenite-impaired RT and BT cells were stimulated with ACTH, dbcAMP, OH-cholesterol, and pregnenolone. Selenite acted at different steps in the cortisol biosynthesis pathway in RT and BT cells, confirming a species-specific toxicity mechanism. To test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates Se-induced toxicity, selenite-impaired RT cells were exposed to NAC, BSO and antioxidants (DETCA, ATA, Vit A, and Vit E). Inhibition of SOD by DETCA enhanced selenite-induced cortisol impairment, indicating that oxidative stress plays a role in Se toxicity; however, modifying GSH content of the cells did not have an effect. The results of this study, with two closely related salmonids, provided additional evidence for species-specific differences in sensitivity to Se which should be considered when setting thresholds and water quality guidelines. - Research Highlights: > We investigated species-specific sensitivity to Se in trout adrenocortical cells. > Selenite, not Se-Met, disrupts cortisol secretion in trout adrenocortical cells. > Rainbow trout cells are more sensitive than brook trout cells to selenite toxicity. > Superoxide dismutase may protect adrenocortical cells from selenite toxicity.« less
  • Olfactory epithelial structure and olfactory bulb neurophysiological responses were measured in chinook salmon and rainbow trout in response to 25 to 300 {micro}g copper (Cu)/L. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, the number of olfactory receptors was significantly reduced in chinook salmon exposed to {ge}50 {micro}g Cu/L and in rainbow trout exposed to {ge}200 {micro}g cu/L for 1 h. The number of receptors was significantly reduced in both species following exposure to 25 {micro}g Cu/L for 4 h. Transmission electron microscopy of olfactory epithelial tissue indicated that the loss of receptors was from cellular necrosis. Olfactory bulk electroencephalogram (EEG) responses tomore » 10{sup {minus}3} M L-serine were initially reduced by all Cu concentrations but were virtually eliminated in chinook salmon exposed to {ge}50 {micro}g Cu/L and in rainbow trout exposed to {ge}200 {micro}g Cu/L within 1 h of exposure. Following Cu exposure, EEG response recovery rates were slower in fish exposed to higher Cu concentrations. The higher sensitivity of the chinook salmon olfactory system to Cu-induced histological damage and neurophysiological impairment parallels the relative species sensitivity observed in behavioral avoidance experiments. This difference in species sensitivity may reduce the survival and reproductive potential of chinook salmon compared with that of rainbow trout in Cu-contaminated waters.« less
  • Acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine (a) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature (7, 12, 17 C), pH (6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 9.5), and time on the toxicity of terbufos, trichlorfon, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the amphipod Gammarus pseudolimnaeus, and (b) the individual and interactive effects of water temperature and pH on chemical bioconcentration during acute tests with rainbow trout and Gammarus exposed to terbufos, 4-nitrophenol, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The toxicity of all four chemicals was significantly affected by pH in all tests, except for Gammarus exposed to terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos tomore » rainbow trout and Gammarus was less at pH 7.5 than at higher or lower pH. The toxicity of both nitrophenols decreased as pH increased, whereas the toxicity of trichlorfon increased with pH. The effect of pH on trichlorfon toxicity decreased with temperature. Temperature significantly affected the toxicity of all four chemicals to both species. Toxicity increased with temperature in all tests, except for rainbow trout exposed to nitrophenols; toxicity decreased as temperature increased for rainbow trout. Chemical bioconcentration was also significantly affected by temperature and pH and was directly related to toxicity in most tests. Significant interactive effects between toxicity-modifying factors were also frequently observed. Temperature and pH effects on chemical toxicity need to be considered in chemical hazard assessment to ensure adequate protection of aquatic organisms.« less
  • Bioaccumulation models have been proposed to predict the accumulation of chemicals throughout aquatic food-chains. The efficiency with which organisms at each trophic level absorb these substances from their diet is an important component of such models. Metal absorption from food is typically estimated by applying metal salts surficially to commercial fish diets. However, this method may not provide an accurate estimate of in situ accumulation because the efficiency of absorption of metals applied surficially to commercial diets may differ from that of metals absorbed through the food chain. For example, both sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) accumulated [supmore » 65]zinc applied surficially to foods more efficiently than [sup 65]zinc incorporated into live foods. There have apparently been no similar comparisons made for cadmium using fish. Furthermore, few studies have fitted data to exponential equations to provide estimates of the absorption efficiency coefficient (E) and the excretion coefficient (k[sub 2]) for cadmium. We report here the results of direct comparisons of cadmium absorption from commercial trout diet surficially-contaminated with [sup 109]Cd and from natural food (the amphipod Hyalella azteca) cultured in [sup 109]Cd-contaminated microcosms. We calculated absorption efficiency and excretion coefficients for cadmium by monitoring [sup 109]Cd accumulation and excretion in rainbow trout fingerlings fed on the two diets. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less