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Title: Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression

Abstract

This work focused on new methods for the detection of oxidation in natural substrates during the deconstruction of lignocellulose by microoganisms. Oxidation was the focus because all known biological systems that degrade lignin are oxidative. The detection methods involved the used of (a) micrometer-scale beads carrying a fluorescent dye that is sensitive to oxidation, (b) 13C-labeled synthetic lignins whose breakdown products can be assessed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and (c) a fluorometric stain that is highly sensitive to incipient oxidation during microbial attack. The results showed (a) that one white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produces diffusible oxidants on wood, and that the onset of oxidation is coincident with the marked up-regulation of genes that encode ligninolytic peroxidases and auxiliary oxidative enzymes; (b) that a more selectively ligninolytic white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, produces a highly diastereoselective oxidative system for attack on lignin; (c) that a brown rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, uses extracellular hydroquinone metabolites to drive the production of lignocellulose-oxidizing free radicals; (d) that both white rot and brown rot fungi produce highly diffusible mild oxidants that modify lignocellulose at the earliest stage of substrate deconstruction; and (e) that lignin degradation in a tropical soil ismore » not inhibited as much as expected during periods of flooding-induced hypoxia, which indicates that unknown mechanisms for attack on lignin remain to be discovered.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  2. U.S. Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1319808
Report Number(s):
DOE-UWISC-06929
DOE Contract Number:
SC0006929
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; Lignocellulose; Lignin Degradation; Carbon Cycling; Biofuels; White Rot Fungus; Brown Rot Fungus; Soft Rot Fungus

Citation Formats

Hammel, Kenneth E., Ralph, John, Hunt, Christopher G., and Houtman, Carl J. Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1319808.
Hammel, Kenneth E., Ralph, John, Hunt, Christopher G., & Houtman, Carl J. Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression. United States. doi:10.2172/1319808.
Hammel, Kenneth E., Ralph, John, Hunt, Christopher G., and Houtman, Carl J. 2016. "Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression". United States. doi:10.2172/1319808. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1319808.
@article{osti_1319808,
title = {Fungal Biodegradative Oxidants in Lignocellulose: Fluorescence Mapping and Correlation With Gene Expression},
author = {Hammel, Kenneth E. and Ralph, John and Hunt, Christopher G. and Houtman, Carl J.},
abstractNote = {This work focused on new methods for the detection of oxidation in natural substrates during the deconstruction of lignocellulose by microoganisms. Oxidation was the focus because all known biological systems that degrade lignin are oxidative. The detection methods involved the used of (a) micrometer-scale beads carrying a fluorescent dye that is sensitive to oxidation, (b) 13C-labeled synthetic lignins whose breakdown products can be assessed using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and (c) a fluorometric stain that is highly sensitive to incipient oxidation during microbial attack. The results showed (a) that one white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, produces diffusible oxidants on wood, and that the onset of oxidation is coincident with the marked up-regulation of genes that encode ligninolytic peroxidases and auxiliary oxidative enzymes; (b) that a more selectively ligninolytic white rot fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, produces a highly diastereoselective oxidative system for attack on lignin; (c) that a brown rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, uses extracellular hydroquinone metabolites to drive the production of lignocellulose-oxidizing free radicals; (d) that both white rot and brown rot fungi produce highly diffusible mild oxidants that modify lignocellulose at the earliest stage of substrate deconstruction; and (e) that lignin degradation in a tropical soil is not inhibited as much as expected during periods of flooding-induced hypoxia, which indicates that unknown mechanisms for attack on lignin remain to be discovered.},
doi = {10.2172/1319808},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • Abstracts and brief summaries are provided for six published articles and seventeen poster and oral presentations at scientific meetings.
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