skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Heterologous expression of family 10 xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus enhances the exoproteome of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and growth on xylan substrates

Abstract

The ability to deconstruct plant biomass without conventional pretreatment has made members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor the target of investigation for the consolidated processing of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. These Gram-positive bacteria are hyperthermophilic anaerobes and the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms so far described. They use both C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously and have the ability to grow well on xylan, a major component of plant cell walls. This is an important advantage for their use to efficiently convert biomass at yields sufficient for an industrial process. For commodity chemicals, yield from substrate is perhaps the most important economic factor. In an attempt to improve even further the ability of C. bescii to use xylan, we introduced two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Acel_0180 includes tandem carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM2 and CBM3) located at the C-terminus, one of which, CBM2, is not present in C. bescii. Also, the sequences of Xyn10A and Acel_0180 have very little homology with the GH10 domains present in C. bescii. For these reasons, we selected these xylanases as potential candidates for synergistic interaction with those in the C. bescii exoproteome. As a result, heterologous expression of two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii resultedmore » in a modest, but significant increase in the activity of the exoproteome of C. bescii on xylan substrates. Even though the increase in extracellular activity was modest, the ability of C. bescii to grow on these substrates was dramatically improved suggesting that the xylan substrate/microbe interaction substantially increased deconstruction over the secreted free enzymes alone. In conclusion, we anticipate that the ability to efficiently use xylan, a major component of plant cell walls for conversion of plant biomass to products of interest, will allow the conversion of renewable, sustainable, and inexpensive plant feedstocks to products at high yields.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1319281
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-2700-67046
Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biotechnology for Biofuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; consolidated bioprocessing; biomass deconstruction; xylanase; caldicellulosiruptor

Citation Formats

Kim, Sun -Ki, Chung, Daehwan, Himmel, Michael E., Bomble, Yannick J., and Westpheling, Janet. Heterologous expression of family 10 xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus enhances the exoproteome of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and growth on xylan substrates. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1186/s13068-016-0588-9.
Kim, Sun -Ki, Chung, Daehwan, Himmel, Michael E., Bomble, Yannick J., & Westpheling, Janet. Heterologous expression of family 10 xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus enhances the exoproteome of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and growth on xylan substrates. United States. doi:10.1186/s13068-016-0588-9.
Kim, Sun -Ki, Chung, Daehwan, Himmel, Michael E., Bomble, Yannick J., and Westpheling, Janet. Mon . "Heterologous expression of family 10 xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus enhances the exoproteome of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and growth on xylan substrates". United States. doi:10.1186/s13068-016-0588-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1319281.
@article{osti_1319281,
title = {Heterologous expression of family 10 xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus enhances the exoproteome of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and growth on xylan substrates},
author = {Kim, Sun -Ki and Chung, Daehwan and Himmel, Michael E. and Bomble, Yannick J. and Westpheling, Janet},
abstractNote = {The ability to deconstruct plant biomass without conventional pretreatment has made members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor the target of investigation for the consolidated processing of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. These Gram-positive bacteria are hyperthermophilic anaerobes and the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms so far described. They use both C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously and have the ability to grow well on xylan, a major component of plant cell walls. This is an important advantage for their use to efficiently convert biomass at yields sufficient for an industrial process. For commodity chemicals, yield from substrate is perhaps the most important economic factor. In an attempt to improve even further the ability of C. bescii to use xylan, we introduced two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Acel_0180 includes tandem carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM2 and CBM3) located at the C-terminus, one of which, CBM2, is not present in C. bescii. Also, the sequences of Xyn10A and Acel_0180 have very little homology with the GH10 domains present in C. bescii. For these reasons, we selected these xylanases as potential candidates for synergistic interaction with those in the C. bescii exoproteome. As a result, heterologous expression of two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii resulted in a modest, but significant increase in the activity of the exoproteome of C. bescii on xylan substrates. Even though the increase in extracellular activity was modest, the ability of C. bescii to grow on these substrates was dramatically improved suggesting that the xylan substrate/microbe interaction substantially increased deconstruction over the secreted free enzymes alone. In conclusion, we anticipate that the ability to efficiently use xylan, a major component of plant cell walls for conversion of plant biomass to products of interest, will allow the conversion of renewable, sustainable, and inexpensive plant feedstocks to products at high yields.},
doi = {10.1186/s13068-016-0588-9},
journal = {Biotechnology for Biofuels},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 22 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 22 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • The Caldicellulosiruptor bescii genome encodes a potent set of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), found primarily as multi-domain enzymes that exhibit high cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activity on and allow utilization of a broad range of substrates, including plant biomass without conventional pretreatment. CelA, the most abundant cellulase in the C. bescii secretome, uniquely combines a GH9 endoglucanase and a GH48 exoglucanase in one protein. The most effective commercial enzyme cocktails used in vitro to pretreat biomass are derived from fungal cellulases (cellobiohydrolases, endoglucanases and a β-d-glucosidases) that act synergistically to release sugars for microbial conversion. The C. bescii genome contains six GH5more » domains in five different open reading frames. Four exist in multi-domain proteins and two as single catalytic domains. E1 is a GH5 endoglucanase reported to have high specific activity and simple architecture and is active at the growth temperature of C. bescii. E1 is an endo-1,4-β-glucanase linked to a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module shown to bind primarily to cellulosic substrates. As a result, we tested if the addition of this protein to the C. bescii secretome would improve its cellulolytic activity.« less
  • The use of microbial cells to convert plant biomass directly to fuels and chemicals is referred to as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Members of the bacterial genus, Caldicellulosiruptor (Gram-positive, anaerobic hyperthermophiles) are capable of deconstructing plant biomass without enzymatic or chemical pretreatment. This is accomplished by the production and secretion of free, multi-domain enzymes that outperform commercial enzyme cocktails on some substrates. Here, we show that the exoproteome of C. bescii may be enhanced by the heterologous expression of enzymes from Acidothermus cellulolyticus that act synergistically to improve sugar release from complex substrates; as well as improve cell growth. In thismore » work, co-expression of the A. cellulolyticus Acel_0615 ..beta..-glucanase (GH6 and GH12) and E1 endoglucanase (GH5) enzymes resulted in an increase in the activity of the exoproteome on Avicel; as well as an increase in growth of C. bescii on Avicel compared to the parental strain or the strain expressing the ..beta..-glucanase alone. As a result, our ability to engineer the composition and effectiveness of the exoproteome of these bacteria provides insight into the natural mechanism of plant cell wall deconstruction, as well as future directions for improving CBP.« less
  • Members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacteria so far described and are capable of efficiently utilizing complex lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. Previous studies have shown that accumulation of high concentrations of cellobiose and, to a lesser extent, cellotriose, inhibits cellulase activity both in vivo and in vitro and high concentrations of cellobiose are present in C. bescii fermentations after 90 h of incubation. For some cellulolytic microorganisms, β-d-glucosidase is essential for the efficient utilization of cellobiose as a carbon source and is an essential enzyme in commercial preparations for efficient deconstruction of plant biomass. Inmore » spite of its ability to grow efficiently on crystalline cellulose, no extracellular β-d-glucosidase or its GH1 catalytic domain could be identified in the C. bescii genome. In order to investigate whether the addition of a secreted β-d-glucosidase would improve growth and cellulose utilization by C. bescii, we also cloned and expressed a thermostable β-d-glucosidase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (Acel_0133) in C. bescii using the CelA signal sequence for protein export. The effect of this addition was modest, suggesting that ..beta..-d-glucosidase is not rate limiting for cellulose deconstruction and utilization by C. bescii.« less
    Cited by 1
  • Members of the genusCaldicellulosiruptorhave the ability to deconstruct and grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. A genetically tractable species,Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, was recently engineered to produce ethanol directly from switchgrass.C. besciicontains more than 50 glycosyl hydrolases and a suite of extracellular enzymes for biomass deconstruction, most prominently CelA, a multidomain cellulase that uses a novel mechanism to deconstruct plant biomass. Accumulation of cellobiose, a product of CelA during growth on biomass, inhibits cellulase activity. Here, we show that heterologous expression of a cellobiose phosphorylase from Thermotoga maritimaimproves the phosphorolytic pathway inC. besciiand results in synergistic activity with endogenous enzymes, includingmore » CelA, to increase cellulolytic activity and growth on crystalline cellulose. CelA is the only known cellulase to function well on highly crystalline cellulose and it uses a mechanism distinct from those of other cellulases, including fungal cellulases. Also unlike fungal cellulases, it functions at high temperature and, in fact, outperforms commercial cellulase cocktails. Factors that inhibit CelA during biomass deconstruction are significantly different than those that impact the performance of fungal cellulases and commercial mixtures. Here, this work contributes to understanding of cellulase inhibition and enzyme function and will suggest a rational approach to engineering optimal activity.« less