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Title: Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

Abstract

Here we report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 °C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured. Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Bioenergy Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1319192
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy and Fuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0887-0624
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS

Citation Formats

Kass, Michael D., Janke, Christopher J., Connatser, Raynella M., Lewis, Samuel A., Keiser, James R., and Gaston, Katherine. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01138.
Kass, Michael D., Janke, Christopher J., Connatser, Raynella M., Lewis, Samuel A., Keiser, James R., & Gaston, Katherine. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01138.
Kass, Michael D., Janke, Christopher J., Connatser, Raynella M., Lewis, Samuel A., Keiser, James R., and Gaston, Katherine. 2016. "Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01138. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1319192.
@article{osti_1319192,
title = {Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel},
author = {Kass, Michael D. and Janke, Christopher J. and Connatser, Raynella M. and Lewis, Samuel A. and Keiser, James R. and Gaston, Katherine},
abstractNote = {Here we report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 °C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured. Exposure to bio-oil produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b01138},
journal = {Energy and Fuels},
number = 8,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
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  • Bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with six elastomer types was evaluated against the elastomer performance in neat diesel fuel, which served as the baseline. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBRs), and one type each of fluorosilicone, silicone, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, and neoprene. Specimens of each material were exposed to the liquid and gaseous phases of the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60 degrees C, and properties in the wetted and dried states were measured. Exposure to bio-oilmore » produced significant volume expansion in the fluorocarbons, NBRs, and fluorosilicone; however, excessive swelling (over 80%) was only observed for the two fluorocarbons and two NBR grades. The polyurethane specimens were completely degraded by the bio-oil. In contrast, both silicone and SBR exhibited lower swelling levels in bio-oil compared to neat diesel fuel. The implication is that, while polyurethane and fluorocarbon may not be acceptable seal materials for bio-oils, silicone may offer a lower cost alternative.« less
  • Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness ofmore » the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.« less