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Title: Notes on constraints for the observation of Polar Kerr Effect in complex materials

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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
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Physica. B, Condensed Matter
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Journal Volume: 460; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-05-31 09:12:04; Journal ID: ISSN 0921-4526
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Kapitulnik, Aharon. Notes on constraints for the observation of Polar Kerr Effect in complex materials. Netherlands: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2014.11.059.
Kapitulnik, Aharon. Notes on constraints for the observation of Polar Kerr Effect in complex materials. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2014.11.059.
Kapitulnik, Aharon. 2015. "Notes on constraints for the observation of Polar Kerr Effect in complex materials". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.physb.2014.11.059.
title = {Notes on constraints for the observation of Polar Kerr Effect in complex materials},
author = {Kapitulnik, Aharon},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.physb.2014.11.059},
journal = {Physica. B, Condensed Matter},
number = C,
volume = 460,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2015,
month = 3

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Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.physb.2014.11.059

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  • The predicted perpendicular surface anisotropy is observed for ferromagnetic fcc Fe/Cu(100) via in situ, polar Kerr-effect measurements. Square hysteresis loops are obtained for films 1.5 to 5.7 monolayers thick for 100-K growth. The region of stability of the perpendicularly magnetized state as a function of growth temperature and film thickness is delineated. Combined longitudinal and polar Kerr-effect measurements show that the anisotropy reverts to being in plane for films thicker than approx.6 monolayers.
  • The theoretically predicted prependicular surface anisotropy of ultrathin ferromagnetic Fe films has been confirmed using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. Polar and longitudinal Kerr-effect measurements have been performed in situ on the same fcc Fe/Cu(100) films to study the dependence of the magnetic properties on film thickness and growth temperature conditions. Auxiliary LEED and Auger studies are used to characterize the structure and growth of the films. For films 1.2--5.9 monolayers (ML) thick grown at approx.100 K, for instance, square hysteresis-loop behavior in the polar Kerr effect confirmed the dominance of the perpendicular surface anisotropy. Examples are presented to document howmore » the polar and longitudinal Kerr-effect signals evolve for films thicker than 6 ML due to the easy axis reorienting into the film plane. To differentiate between intrinsic temperature effects and those associated with interfacial compositional changes, the films were thermally cycled and their Kerr signals monitored. Films of thickness around 4 ML retained their characteristic polar Kerr-effect square loops despite thermal cycling between approx.100 and approx.400 K, while those <2 ML thick changed irreversibly. These studies confirm that intermixing can be limited to the monolayer range by low-temperature growth conditions, but the LEED results show that the degree of structural ordering of the films is reduced, as expected.« less
  • Using analytical and numerical methods, we show that the polar Kerr rotation {theta}{sub K} of 90{degree} may be attained in a large class of (magnetic-semiconductor)/metal layered structures just below the absorption edge. The corresponding reflectivity varies over wide limits. For example, in a EuS/Ag multilayer with a small period it is of several percent, while in a thick layer of EuS deposited on Ag it achieves 95{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
  • Polar Kerr effect in the spin-triplet superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} was measured with high precision using a Sagnac interferometer with a zero-area Sagnac loop. We observed non-zero Kerr rotations as big as 65 nanorad appearing below T{sub c} in large domains. Our results imply a broken time reversal symmetry state in the superconducting state of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, similar to {sup 3}He-A.
  • The search for broken time reversal symmetry (TRSB) in unconventional superconductors intensified in the past year as more systems have been predicted to possess such a state. Following our pioneering study of TRSB states in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} using magneto-optic probes, we embarked on a systematic study of several other of these candidate systems. The primary instrument for our studies is the Sagnac magneto-optic interferometer, which we recently developed. This instrument can measure magneto-optic Faraday or Kerr effects with an unprecedented sensitivity of 10 nanoradians at temperatures as low as 100 mK. In this paper we review our recent studiesmore » of TRSB in several systems, emphasizing the study of the pseudogap state of high temperature superconductors and the inverse proximity effect in superconductor/ferromagnet proximity structures.« less