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Title: High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures

Abstract

This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG) structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM 02 mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM 11 mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion of the dielectric birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19 MV/m, corresponding to a surface electric field of 78 MV/m, with a breakdown probability of 5×10 –1 per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20 MV/m led to runaway breakdowns withmore » extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. As a result, this research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1313256
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0010075
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Physical Review Accelerators and Beams
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 19; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2469-9888
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Zhang, JieXi, Munroe, Brian J., Xu, Haoran, Shapiro, Michael A., and Temkin, Richard J. High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.081304.
Zhang, JieXi, Munroe, Brian J., Xu, Haoran, Shapiro, Michael A., & Temkin, Richard J. High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.081304.
Zhang, JieXi, Munroe, Brian J., Xu, Haoran, Shapiro, Michael A., and Temkin, Richard J. 2016. "High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.081304.
@article{osti_1313256,
title = {High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures},
author = {Zhang, JieXi and Munroe, Brian J. and Xu, Haoran and Shapiro, Michael A. and Temkin, Richard J.},
abstractNote = {This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG) structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM02 mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM11 mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion of the dielectric birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19 MV/m, corresponding to a surface electric field of 78 MV/m, with a breakdown probability of 5×10–1 per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20 MV/m led to runaway breakdowns with extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. As a result, this research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.081304},
journal = {Physical Review Accelerators and Beams},
number = 8,
volume = 19,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1103/PhysRevAccelBeams.19.081304

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  • This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG) accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG) structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM 02 mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM 11 mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion ofmore » the dielectric birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19 MV/m, corresponding to a surface electric field of 78 MV/m, with a breakdown probability of 5×10 –1 per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20 MV/m led to runaway breakdowns with extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. As a result, this research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.« less
  • In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG) accelerator structure. Photonic band-gap (PBG) structures are promising candidates for electron accelerators capable of high-gradient operation because they have the inherent damping of high order modes required to avoid beam breakup instabilities. The 17.1 GHz PBG structure tested was a single cell structure composed of a triangular array of round copper rods of radius 1.45 mm spaced by 8.05 mm. The test assembly consisted of the test PBG cell located between conventional (pillbox) input and output cells, with input power ofmore » up to 4 MW from a klystron supplied via a TM 01 mode launcher. Breakdown at high gradient was observed by diagnostics including reflected power, downstream and upstream current monitors and visible light emission. The testing procedure was first benchmarked with a conventional disc-loaded waveguide structure, which reached a gradient of 87 MV=m at a breakdown probability of 1.19 × 10 –1 per pulse per meter. The PBG structure was tested with 100 ns pulses at gradient levels of less than 90 MV=m in order to limit the surface temperature rise to 120 K. The PBG structure reached up to 89 MV=m at a breakdown probability of 1.09 × 10 –1 per pulse per meter. These test results show that a PBG structure can simultaneously operate at high gradients and low breakdown probability, while also providing wakefield damping.« less
  • In this paper, we report the design, fabrication, and high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG) accelerator structure. Photonic band-gap (PBG) structures are promising candidates for electron accelerators capable of high-gradient operation because they have the inherent damping of high order modes required to avoid beam breakup instabilities. The 17.1 GHz PBG structure tested was a single cell structure composed of a triangular array of round copper rods of radius 1.45 mm spaced by 8.05 mm. The test assembly consisted of the test PBG cell located between conventional (pillbox) input and output cells, with input power ofmore » up to 4 MW from a klystron supplied via a TM 01 mode launcher. Breakdown at high gradient was observed by diagnostics including reflected power, downstream and upstream current monitors and visible light emission. The testing procedure was first benchmarked with a conventional disc-loaded waveguide structure, which reached a gradient of 87 MV=m at a breakdown probability of 1.19 × 10 –1 per pulse per meter. The PBG structure was tested with 100 ns pulses at gradient levels of less than 90 MV=m in order to limit the surface temperature rise to 120 K. The PBG structure reached up to 89 MV=m at a breakdown probability of 1.09 × 10 –1 per pulse per meter. These test results show that a PBG structure can simultaneously operate at high gradients and low breakdown probability, while also providing wakefield damping.« less