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Title: Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit

Abstract

Li-ion cells provide the highest specific energy and energy density rechargeable battery with the longest life. Many safety incidents that take place in the field originate due to an internal short that was not detectable or predictable at the point of manufacture. NREL's internal short circuit (ISC) device is capable of simulating shorts and produces consistent and reproducible results. The cell behaves normally until the ISC device is activated wherein a latent defect (i.e., built into the cell during manufacturing) gradually moves into position to create an internal short while the battery is in use, providing relevant data to verify abuse models. The ISC device is an effective tool for studying the safety features of parts of Li-ion batteries.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1310176
Report Number(s):
NREL/PO-5400-66966
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 18th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries, 19-24 June 2016, Chicago Illinois
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; lithium-ion battery; internal short circuit; internal short circuit device; safety response; research tool

Citation Formats

Keyser, Matthew, Darcy, Eric, and Pesaran, Ahmad. Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Keyser, Matthew, Darcy, Eric, & Pesaran, Ahmad. Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit. United States.
Keyser, Matthew, Darcy, Eric, and Pesaran, Ahmad. 2016. "Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1310176.
@article{osti_1310176,
title = {Research Tool to Evaluate the Safety Response of Lithium Batteries to an Internal Short Circuit},
author = {Keyser, Matthew and Darcy, Eric and Pesaran, Ahmad},
abstractNote = {Li-ion cells provide the highest specific energy and energy density rechargeable battery with the longest life. Many safety incidents that take place in the field originate due to an internal short that was not detectable or predictable at the point of manufacture. NREL's internal short circuit (ISC) device is capable of simulating shorts and produces consistent and reproducible results. The cell behaves normally until the ISC device is activated wherein a latent defect (i.e., built into the cell during manufacturing) gradually moves into position to create an internal short while the battery is in use, providing relevant data to verify abuse models. The ISC device is an effective tool for studying the safety features of parts of Li-ion batteries.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Conference:
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  • This presentation describes the multi-physics behaviors of internal and external short circuits in large lithium-ion batteries.
  • This presentation outlines NREL's multi-physics simulation study to characterize an internal short by linking and integrating electrochemical cell, electro-thermal, and abuse reaction kinetics models.
  • Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of-the-art power sources for a variety of applications, from consumer electronic devices to electric-drive vehicles (EDVs). Being an energized component, failure of the battery is an essential concern, which can result in rupture, smoke, fire, or venting. The failure of Lithium-ion batteries can be due to a number of external abusive conditions (impact/crush, overcharge, thermal ramp, etc.) or internal conditions (internal short circuits, excessive heating due to resistance build-up, etc.), of which the mechanical-abuse-induced short circuit is a very practical problem. In order to better understand the behavior of Lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse, amore » coupled modeling methodology encompassing the mechanical, thermal and electrical response has been developed for predicting short circuit under external crush.« less
  • NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by fieldmore » failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C – 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.« less