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Title: Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint

Abstract

Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1305949
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5400-66962
Journal ID: ISSN 1938--6737
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 24; Conference: Presented at the 229th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society (ECS 229), 29 May - 2 June 2016, San Diego, California
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; energy storage; electrochemical-thermal mechanical response; MECT; lithium-ion battery

Citation Formats

Zhang, Chao, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Sprague, Michael A., and Pesaran, Ahmad A. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1149/07224.0009ecst.
Zhang, Chao, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Sprague, Michael A., & Pesaran, Ahmad A. Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint. United States. doi:10.1149/07224.0009ecst.
Zhang, Chao, Santhanagopalan, Shriram, Sprague, Michael A., and Pesaran, Ahmad A. 2016. "Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint". United States. doi:10.1149/07224.0009ecst. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1305949.
@article{osti_1305949,
title = {Simultaneously Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Simulation of Lithium-Ion Cells: Preprint},
author = {Zhang, Chao and Santhanagopalan, Shriram and Sprague, Michael A. and Pesaran, Ahmad A.},
abstractNote = {Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenization model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.},
doi = {10.1149/07224.0009ecst},
journal = {},
number = 24,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Conference:
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  • Understanding the combined electrochemical-thermal and mechanical response of a system has a variety of applications, for example, structural failure from electrochemical fatigue and the potential induced changes of material properties. For lithium-ion batteries, there is an added concern over the safety of the system in the event of mechanical failure of the cell components. In this work, we present a generic multi-scale simultaneously coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal model to examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrochemical-thermal responses. We treat the battery cell as a homogeneous material while locally we explicitly solve for the mechanical response of individual components using a homogenizationmore » model and the electrochemical-thermal responses using an electrochemical model for the battery. A benchmark problem is established to demonstrate the proposed modeling framework. The model shows the capability to capture the gradual evolution of cell electrochemical-thermal responses, and predicts the variation of those responses under different short-circuit conditions.« less
  • Models capture the force response for single-cell and cell-string levels to within 15%-20% accuracy and predict the location for the origin of failure based on the deformation data from the experiments. At the module level, there is some discrepancy due to poor mechanical characterization of the packaging material between the cells. The thermal response (location and value of maximum temperature) agrees qualitatively with experimental data. In general, the X-plane results agree with model predictions to within 20% (pending faulty thermocouples, etc.); the Z-plane results show a bigger variability both between the models and test-results, as well as among multiple repeatsmore » of the tests. The models are able to capture the timing and sequence in voltage drop observed in the multi-cell experiments; the shapes of the current and temperature profiles need more work to better characterize propagation. The cells within packaging experience about 60% less force under identical impact test conditions, so the packaging on the test articles is robust. However, under slow-crush simulations, the maximum deformation of the cell strings with packaging is about twice that of cell strings without packaging.« less
  • The safety behavior of lithium-ion batteries under external mechanical crush is a critical concern, especially during large scale deployment. We previously presented a sequentially coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal modeling approach for studying mechanical abuse induced short circuit. Here in this work, we study different mechanical test conditions and examine the interaction between mechanical failure and electrical-thermal responses, by developing a simultaneous coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model. The present work utilizes a single representative-sandwich (RS) to model the full pouch cell with explicit representations for each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc. Anisotropic constitutive material models are presented to describemore » the mechanical properties of active materials and separator. The model predicts accurately the force-strain response and fracture of battery structure, simulates the local failure of separator layer, and captures the onset of short circuit for lithium-ion battery cell under sphere indentation tests with three different diameters. Electrical-thermal responses to the three different indentation tests are elaborated and discussed. Lastly, numerical studies are presented to show the potential impact of test conditions on the electrical-thermal behavior of the cell after the occurrence of short circuit.« less
  • This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.