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Title: X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility

Abstract

Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the NIF’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight. We discuss the measured accuracy of sample responses, as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [5];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States)
  3. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, VA (United States)
  4. Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)
  5. Dynasen, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1305814
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-692683
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; RSINAK
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Fournier, K. B., Brown, Jr., C. G., Yeoman, M. F., Fisher, J. H., Seiler, S. W., Hinshelwood, D., Compton, S., Holdener, F. R., Kemp, G. E., Newlander, C. D., Gilliam, R. P., Froula, N., Lilly, M., Davis, J. F., Lerch, MAJ. A., and Blue, B. E.. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960501.
Fournier, K. B., Brown, Jr., C. G., Yeoman, M. F., Fisher, J. H., Seiler, S. W., Hinshelwood, D., Compton, S., Holdener, F. R., Kemp, G. E., Newlander, C. D., Gilliam, R. P., Froula, N., Lilly, M., Davis, J. F., Lerch, MAJ. A., & Blue, B. E.. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960501.
Fournier, K. B., Brown, Jr., C. G., Yeoman, M. F., Fisher, J. H., Seiler, S. W., Hinshelwood, D., Compton, S., Holdener, F. R., Kemp, G. E., Newlander, C. D., Gilliam, R. P., Froula, N., Lilly, M., Davis, J. F., Lerch, MAJ. A., and Blue, B. E.. Wed . "X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960501. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1305814.
@article{osti_1305814,
title = {X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility},
author = {Fournier, K. B. and Brown, Jr., C. G. and Yeoman, M. F. and Fisher, J. H. and Seiler, S. W. and Hinshelwood, D. and Compton, S. and Holdener, F. R. and Kemp, G. E. and Newlander, C. D. and Gilliam, R. P. and Froula, N. and Lilly, M. and Davis, J. F. and Lerch, MAJ. A. and Blue, B. E.},
abstractNote = {Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the NIF’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight. We discuss the measured accuracy of sample responses, as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960501},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 11,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 10 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Aug 10 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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  • Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built-in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines ofmore » sight. The measured accuracy of sample responses as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette is discussed.« less
  • Here, indirect drive experiments at the National Ignition Facility are designed to achieve fusion by imploding a fuel capsule with x rays from a laser-driven hohlraum. Previous experiments have been unable to determine whether a deficit in measured ablator implosion velocity relative to simulations is due to inadequate models of the hohlraum or ablator physics. ViewFactor experiments allow for the first time a direct measure of the x-ray drive from the capsule point of view. The experiments show a 15%–25% deficit relative to simulations and thus explain nearly all of the disagreement with the velocity data. In addition, the datamore » from this open geometry provide much greater constraints on a predictive model of laser-driven hohlraum performance than the nominal ignition target.« less
  • The ablation of first surface materials by x rays is a primary threat to the final optics in the NIF target chamber. To meet the operational goals of the facility, the designs of the chamber wall, target holder, and diagnostic surfaces must minimize ablation by x rays, typically by specifying materials that are low-Z, high temperature resistant, and shock resistant. Additionally, the response of the optics to direct target emissions must be understood. This paper describes some experimental and modeling work to develop the validated computer models necessary to quantify the x-ray response of various materials. These codes and furthermore » experiments will then confirm the ability of NIF first surface designs to meet functional requirements.« less
  • This paper discusses results of modeling and experiments on the x-ray response of selected materials relevant to the NIF target chamber design. X-ray energy deposition occurs in such small characteristic depths (on the order of a micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion significantly affect the material response, even during the typical 10-ns pulses. The finite-difference ablation model integrates four separate processes: x-ray energy deposition, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and surface vaporization. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser facility in Livermore on the response of various materials to NIF-relevant x-ray fluences. Samples of fused silica, silicon nitride, boron carbide,more » boron, silicon carbide, carbon, aluminum oxide, and aluminum were tested. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) instruments. On the basis of these observations, judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. The relative importances of these processes were also investigated with the x-ray response model. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less