skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

Abstract

X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; US Dept. of Homeland Security (DHS). Domestic Nuclear Detection Office
OSTI Identifier:
1305809
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-700977
TRN: US1601803
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; AC05-06OR23100; IAA HSHQDC-12-X-00341
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; X-RAY SPECTRA; CARGO; DENSITY; IMPORTS; SPECTRAL DENSITY; IMAGES; X RADIATION; DISTRIBUTION; INSPECTION; PERFORMANCE

Citation Formats

Wang, Guangxing, Martz, Harry, Glenn, Steven, Divin, Charles, and Birrer, Nat. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1305809.
Wang, Guangxing, Martz, Harry, Glenn, Steven, Divin, Charles, & Birrer, Nat. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images. United States. doi:10.2172/1305809.
Wang, Guangxing, Martz, Harry, Glenn, Steven, Divin, Charles, and Birrer, Nat. 2016. "Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images". United States. doi:10.2172/1305809. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1305809.
@article{osti_1305809,
title = {Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images},
author = {Wang, Guangxing and Martz, Harry and Glenn, Steven and Divin, Charles and Birrer, Nat},
abstractNote = {X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.},
doi = {10.2172/1305809},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.
  • X-ray inspection systems are used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, system imaging capabilities and the characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project involved calculation of the modulation transfer function as a metric of system imaging performance and a study of the density and inhomogeneity of imported cargos, which have been shown to correlate with human analysts, threat detection performance.
  • The UNLV Research Foundation, as the primary award recipient, teamed with Varian Medical Systems-Security & Inspection Products and the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) for the purpose of conducting research and engineering related to a "next-generation" mega-voltage imaging (MVCI) system for inspection of cargo in large containers. The procurement and build-out of hardware for the MVCI project has been completed. The K-9 linear accelerator and an optimized X-ray detection system capable of efficiently detecting X-rays emitted from the accelerator after they have passed through the device is under test. The Office of Science financial assistance award has made possiblemore » the development of a system utilizing a technology which will have a profound positive impact on the security of U.S. seaports. The proposed project will ultimately result in critical research and development advances for the "next-generation" Linatron X-ray accelerator technology, thereby providing a safe, reliable and efficient fixed and mobile cargo inspection system, which will very significantly increase the fraction of cargo containers undergoing reliable inspection as the enter U.S. ports. Both NNSA/NA-22 and the Department of Homeland Security's Domestic Nuclear Detection Office are collaborating with UNLV and its team to make this technology available as soon as possible.« less
  • In view of the rising oil costs and the protracted decline in demand for new tonnage along with the low productivity of existing tonnage, this paper will attempt to examine the realistic potential of sail-assisted power (S/A) as an alternative to oil for marine transportation. There are no commercially successful S/A cargo vessels in operation today. Therefore, due to the lack of existing data and the radical change between former sailing vessels and those proposed for re-introduction today, the material contained in this work is, for the most part, subjective. Sail power has a proven history of success longer thanmore » any other form of energy alternative to oil has been in existence. Since the methodology is well known it will be necessary only to re-apply the economics of the present situation and estimate the increased efficiency obtainable with existing technology. Without going into great depth, this paper has attempted to examine some of the problems S/A power will have in the beginning as well as some of the advantages it will enjoy. Conclusions are drawn based on existing evidence and recommendations are offered for continued work in this area.« less
  • Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. Until now, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended upon manual screening and analysis of samples, a costly and impractical approach, particularly with large volumes of heterogeneously contaminated soil. The baseline approach for the remediation of soils containing radioactive waste is excavation, pretreatment, containerization, and disposal at a federally permitted landfill. However, disposal of low-level radioactive waste is expensive and storage capacity ismore » limited. ThermoNuclean`s Segmented Gate System (SGS) removes only the radioactively contaminated soil, in turn greatly reducing the volume of soils that requires disposal. After processing using the SGS, the fraction of contaminated soil is processed using the containerized vat leaching (CVL) system developed at LANL. Uranium is leached out of the soil in solution. The uranium is recovered with an ion exchange resin, leaving only a small volume of liquid low-level waste requiring disposal. The reclaimed soil can be returned to its original location after treatment with CVL.« less