skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology

Abstract

Amorphous powders often possess high hardness values and other useful mechanical properties. However, densifying these powders into complex shapes while retaining their unique properties is a challenge with standard processing routes. Pressureless sintering, for example, can densify intricate green parts composed of rapidly-solidified powders. But this process typically involves long exposures to elevated temperatures, during which the non-equilibrium microstructure of the powder can evolve towards lower energy configurations with inferior properties. Pressure-assisted compaction techniques, by contrast, can consolidate green parts with simple shapes while preserving the microstructure and properties of the powder feedstock. But parts made with these processes generally require additional post-processing, including machining, which introduces new challenges due to the high hardness of these materials. One processing route that can potentially avoid these issues is Indirect 3D Printing (I-3DP; aka Binder Jetting) followed by melt infiltration. In I-3DP, an organic binder is used to join powder feedstock, layer-by-layer, into a green part. In melt infiltration, this green preform is densified by placing it in contact with a molten alloy that wets the preform and wicks into the pores as a result of capillary forces. When these processes are paired together, they offer two key advantages for the densificationmore » of rapidly-solidified powders. The first advantage is that the timescale associated with melt infiltration is on the order of seconds for parts with cm-scale dimensions. So in many instances, infiltration requires only a brief thermal excursion that does not degrade the feedstock’s microstructure. The second advantage is that the combination of binder-jet 3D printing and melt infiltration gives fully-dense net shape objects, minimizing the need for subsequent post-processing. In this work, fully-dense, net shape objects have been fabricated from an amorphous powder using I-3DP and molten bronze infiltration while maintaining the amorphous microstructure. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential thermal analysis were used to characterize the structural evolution of the powder feedstock during an infiltration heating cycle. Microindentation and bend tests were performed on the infiltrated material to evaluate its mechanical properties. It was found that infiltration improved both the ductility and strength of the sintered preforms by eliminating the stress concentration at the interparticle necks. The infiltrated material had an 11 GPa Vickers hardness and moderate damage tolerance, making it well-suited for applications requiring hard, net shape parts.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A)
OSTI Identifier:
1302926
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2016/262
ED2802000; CEED492; CRADA/NFE-15-05501
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Cordero, Zachary, and Elliott, Amy M. Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1302926.
Cordero, Zachary, & Elliott, Amy M. Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology. United States. doi:10.2172/1302926.
Cordero, Zachary, and Elliott, Amy M. 2016. "Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology". United States. doi:10.2172/1302926. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1302926.
@article{osti_1302926,
title = {Collaboration for the Advancement of Indirect 3D Printing Technology},
author = {Cordero, Zachary and Elliott, Amy M.},
abstractNote = {Amorphous powders often possess high hardness values and other useful mechanical properties. However, densifying these powders into complex shapes while retaining their unique properties is a challenge with standard processing routes. Pressureless sintering, for example, can densify intricate green parts composed of rapidly-solidified powders. But this process typically involves long exposures to elevated temperatures, during which the non-equilibrium microstructure of the powder can evolve towards lower energy configurations with inferior properties. Pressure-assisted compaction techniques, by contrast, can consolidate green parts with simple shapes while preserving the microstructure and properties of the powder feedstock. But parts made with these processes generally require additional post-processing, including machining, which introduces new challenges due to the high hardness of these materials. One processing route that can potentially avoid these issues is Indirect 3D Printing (I-3DP; aka Binder Jetting) followed by melt infiltration. In I-3DP, an organic binder is used to join powder feedstock, layer-by-layer, into a green part. In melt infiltration, this green preform is densified by placing it in contact with a molten alloy that wets the preform and wicks into the pores as a result of capillary forces. When these processes are paired together, they offer two key advantages for the densification of rapidly-solidified powders. The first advantage is that the timescale associated with melt infiltration is on the order of seconds for parts with cm-scale dimensions. So in many instances, infiltration requires only a brief thermal excursion that does not degrade the feedstock’s microstructure. The second advantage is that the combination of binder-jet 3D printing and melt infiltration gives fully-dense net shape objects, minimizing the need for subsequent post-processing. In this work, fully-dense, net shape objects have been fabricated from an amorphous powder using I-3DP and molten bronze infiltration while maintaining the amorphous microstructure. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential thermal analysis were used to characterize the structural evolution of the powder feedstock during an infiltration heating cycle. Microindentation and bend tests were performed on the infiltrated material to evaluate its mechanical properties. It was found that infiltration improved both the ductility and strength of the sintered preforms by eliminating the stress concentration at the interparticle necks. The infiltrated material had an 11 GPa Vickers hardness and moderate damage tolerance, making it well-suited for applications requiring hard, net shape parts.},
doi = {10.2172/1302926},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • The Final Report presents comprehensive recommendations for designing pulse combustion (PC) burners along with inlet/exhaust decoupler systems for any given application. The use of these guidelines is further explained with supporting data and examples. The report also presents major results from the work done in the following areas: development of a stand-alone PC water-heater system; guidelines for optimum design of vent terminals for PC appliances; design correlations for modulating the input rate of a fixed PC burner system; and heat-transfer rates from PC burners. Finally, the report also discusses: the major contributions to the progress of all the GRI-sponsored PC-relatedmore » projects, both in the applications area and in the basic research area; and the efforts leading to rapid transfer of technology to the gas industry through publication of several quality papers in national and international gas conferences.« less
  • The overall aim of this project is the development of pulse combustion technology, with specific application to furnaces with ultra-high efficiency. The report describes work conducted during 1981. The performance of a series of pulse combustion burner designs has been observed with various input spans within an overall framework of 15,000 to 300,000 Btu per hour. These data are intended to assist designers in selecting appropriate burner component designs to meet their particular needs and also, to provide the means to relate various burner design factors to burner performance, particularly in regards to noise of operation.
  • This annual report presents the major results in the areas of stand-alone pulse units, mixing and decoupling. A self-starting pulse unit was designed and successfully tested up to an input rate of 100,000 Btu/hr. A setup to generate power from pulse unit exhaust gases was also put together. In the area of decoupling, major factors affecting design of inlet and exhaust decouplers were identified. Changes in these factors affected burner stability, operating frequency and the phase relationship between burner and decoupler pressures. Frequency scan analysis was used to simulate frequency response of several burner/decoupler combinations. In the area of mixing,more » a multiple pipe pulse unit was fabricated and used to obtain baseline data on mixer head performance.« less
  • Solar Thermal Central Receiver power plants were studied as a candidate technology for meeting future power generation needs. Previously, molten nitrate salt was chosen as a coolant and risk mitigation involved repowering of an existing fossil power plant and Solar One. The following are reported here: Identification of the key risk issues for the current state of the art, definition of the major activities which make up the preferred development plan, assessment of the development plan and the development of a strategy for financing the development plan.
  • The Buildings Energy Technology Advancement (BETA) Plan is an integrated set of programs dedicated to the advancement and commercialization of energy-efficient and passive solar technologies for residential and commercial buildings in Canada. This bulletin begins with an overview of the BETA plan and barriers to more energy-efficient buildings. It then outlines the BETA technology advancement strategy and some BETA programs including the Passive Solar Program and Advanced Houses Program. Highlights of some BETA program achievements are also included.