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Title: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report

Abstract

One of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Parsivel2 disdrometers was deployed at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil at the beginning of the second Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon)2014/15 intensive operational period (IOP2) in September 2014 through the end of the field campaign in December 2015. The Parsivel2 provided one-minute drop-size distribution (DSD) observations that have already been used for a number of applications related to GoAmazon2014/15 science objectives. The first use was the creation of a reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) relation enabling the calculation of rain rates from the Brazilian Sistema de Protecao da Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band operational radar in Manaus. The radar-derived rainfall is an important constraint for the variational analysis of a large-scale forcing data set, which was recently released for the two IOPs that took place in the 2014 wet and transition seasons, respectively. The SIPAM radar rainfall is also being used to validate a number of cloud-resolving model simulations being run for the campaign. A second use of the Parsivel2 DSDs has been to provide a necessary reference point to calibrate the vertical velocity retrievals from the AMF1 W Band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR)more » cloud-profiling and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) wind-profiling instruments. Accurate retrievals of in-cloud vertical velocities are important to understand the microphysical and kinematic properties of Amazonian convective clouds and their interaction with the land surface and atmospheric aerosols. Further use of the Parsivel2 DSD observations can be made to better understand precipitation characteristics and their variability during GoAmazon2014/15.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
DOE Office of Science Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1302199
Report Number(s):
DOE/SC-ARM-16-042
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-7601830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; cloud microphysical properties, drop-size distribution, rain rate, cloud profiling radar, wind profiling radar, convection, Amazon

Citation Formats

Schumacher, Courtney. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1302199.
Schumacher, Courtney. Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1302199.
Schumacher, Courtney. 2016. "Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1302199. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1302199.
@article{osti_1302199,
title = {Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15: Parsivel2 Field Campaign Report},
author = {Schumacher, Courtney},
abstractNote = {One of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Parsivel2 disdrometers was deployed at the first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil at the beginning of the second Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon)2014/15 intensive operational period (IOP2) in September 2014 through the end of the field campaign in December 2015. The Parsivel2 provided one-minute drop-size distribution (DSD) observations that have already been used for a number of applications related to GoAmazon2014/15 science objectives. The first use was the creation of a reflectivity-rain rate (Z-R) relation enabling the calculation of rain rates from the Brazilian Sistema de Protecao da Amazonia (SIPAM) S-band operational radar in Manaus. The radar-derived rainfall is an important constraint for the variational analysis of a large-scale forcing data set, which was recently released for the two IOPs that took place in the 2014 wet and transition seasons, respectively. The SIPAM radar rainfall is also being used to validate a number of cloud-resolving model simulations being run for the campaign. A second use of the Parsivel2 DSDs has been to provide a necessary reference point to calibrate the vertical velocity retrievals from the AMF1 W Band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) cloud-profiling and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) wind-profiling instruments. Accurate retrievals of in-cloud vertical velocities are important to understand the microphysical and kinematic properties of Amazonian convective clouds and their interaction with the land surface and atmospheric aerosols. Further use of the Parsivel2 DSD observations can be made to better understand precipitation characteristics and their variability during GoAmazon2014/15.},
doi = {10.2172/1302199},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Technical Report:

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  • The physical processes inside clouds are one of the most unknown components of weather and climate systems. A description of cloud processes through the use of standard meteorological parameters in numerical models has to be strongly improved to accurately describe the characteristics of hydrometeors, latent heating profiles, radiative balance, air entrainment, and cloud updrafts and downdrafts. Numerical models have been improved to run at higher spatial resolutions where it is necessary to explicitly describe these cloud processes. For instance, to analyze the effects of global warming in a given region it is necessary to perform simulations taking into account allmore » of the cloud processes described above. Another important application that requires this knowledge is satellite precipitation estimation. The analysis will be performed focusing on the microphysical evolution and cloud life cycle, different precipitation estimation algorithms, the development of thunderstorms and lightning formation, processes in the boundary layer, and cloud microphysical modeling. This project intends to extend the knowledge of these cloud processes to reduce the uncertainties in precipitation estimation, mainly from warm clouds, and, consequently, improve knowledge of the water and energy budget and cloud microphysics.« less
  • Aerosol nucleation and initial growth were investigated during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 campaign. Aerosol sampling occurred during the wet and dry seasons of 2014, and took place at the T3 measurement site, downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil. Characterization of the aerosol size distribution from 10 to 500 nm was accomplished through the deployment of a conventional Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) and a fine condensation particle counter (> 10 nm). In order to directly measure aerosol nucleation and initial growth, a Nano SMPS (1.5-20 nm) was also deployed, consisting of a condensation particle counter-based electrical mobilitymore » spectrometer that was modified for the detection of sub-3 nm aerosol. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution from 1.5 nm to 10 nm were obtained during the first observational period, and from 3 nm to 15 nm during the second observational period. Routine, stable measurement in this size range was complicated due to persistent water condensation in the Nano SMPS and diffusional transport losses« less
  • The University of California, Irvine, science team (Dr. Saewung Kim, Dr. Roger Seco, Dr. Alex Guenther, and Dr. Jim Smith) deployed a chemical ionization mass spectrometer system for hydroxyl radical (OH) and sulfuric acid quantifications. As part of the GoAmazon 2014/15 field campaign. Hydroxyl radical determines tropospheric oxidation capacity and had been expected to be very low in the pristine rain forest region such as the Brazilian Amazon because of the presence of significant levels of highly reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds and very low levels of NO, which is an OH recycling agent. However, several recent in situ OHmore » observations provided by a laser-induced fluorescence system reported unaccountably high OH concentrations. To address this discrepancy, a series of laboratory and theoretical studies has postulated chemical reaction mechanisms of isoprene that may regenerate OH in photo-oxidation processes. Along with these efforts, potential artifacts on the laser induced fluorescence system from isoprene and its oxidation products also have been explored. Therefore, the first chemical ionization mass spectrometer observations at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, are expected to provide a critical experimental constraint to address uncertainty in constraining oxidation capacity over pristine rain forest environments. In addition, we deployed a National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer to characterize atmospheric volatile organic compound levels, especially isoprene and its oxidation products, which are critical input parameters for box modeling to simulate OH with different isoprene photo-oxidation schemes. As there has been no report on noticeable new particle formation events, our first in situ sulfuric acid observations in the Amazon rain forest were expected to constrain the reasons behind such observations. The planned field observations during Intensive Observational Periods I and II, post-field campaign calibrations, and preliminary data reports have been completed. We presented preliminary data analysis results at the 2014 American Geophysical Union Fall meeting and the GOAmazon Science Meeting in Boston (May 2015). We are in the process of submitting two more abstracts to the 2015 American Geophysical Union fall meeting while we are preparing two manuscripts to be submitted to (tentatively) the GOAmazon special issue of Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics.« less
  • The goal of this campaign was to provide higher temporal sampling of the vertical structure of the atmosphere during the two intensive observational periods (IOPs) of the GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s first ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) baseline launches for 2014 and 2015 was 4 sondes/day at 2 am, 8 am, 2 pm, and 8 pm local time (LT) (6, 12, 18 and 0 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). However, rapid changes in boundary layer and free tropospheric temperature, humidity, and wind profiles happen throughout the diurnal cycle over Manaus,more » Brazil's complex forest canopy with resulting responses in aerosol, cloud, and precipitation characteristics. This campaign increased sampling to 5 sondes/day for the 2014 wet and dry season IOPs by adding a launch at 11 am (15 UTC) to capture rapid changes in boundary layer properties and convective cloud growth during that time. The extra launch also corresponded to the time of day the ARM Gulfstream (G-1) and German HALO aircraft most often flew, thus providing useful measurements of the large-scale environment during the flights. In addition, the extra launch will significantly add to the quality of AMF1 instrument retrievals and variational analysis forcing data set during the IOPs.« less
  • Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspirationmore » and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?« less