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Title: System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

Abstract

In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intentmore » prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information relating to the product design and test results are contained in the appendices to this report.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1301864
DOE Contract Number:
OE0000590
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Citation Formats

Zhu, Charles. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.2172/1301864.
Zhu, Charles. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan. United States. doi:10.2172/1301864.
Zhu, Charles. 2015. "System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan". United States. doi:10.2172/1301864. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1301864.
@article{osti_1301864,
title = {System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan},
author = {Zhu, Charles},
abstractNote = {In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information relating to the product design and test results are contained in the appendices to this report.},
doi = {10.2172/1301864},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 5
}

Technical Report:

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  • In his 2011 State of the Union address, President Obama called for one million electric vehicles on the road by 2015 [1]. With large-scale Electric Vehicle (EV) or Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV or EV for short) or Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) penetration into the US market, there will be drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, thus significantly reducing our dependency on foreign oil [2-6]. There will also be significant reduction on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions and smog in the major US cities [3, 7, 8]. Similar studies have also been done other industrial counties [9]. For the fuelmore » cost, with the home electricity rate around $0.13 per kWh, it would cost about $0.05 per mile for DC operation and $0.03 cents per mile for AC operation. But, assuming 25 miles per gallon for a typical vehicle and $4 per gallon, fossil fuel will cost $0.16 per mile [10]. The overall lifecycle cost of PEVs will be several folds lower than the existing fossil fueled vehicles. Despite the above advantages of the EVs, the current cost of EVSE is not affordable for the average consumer. Presently, the cost of installing state-of-the-art residential EVSE ranges from $1500 to $2500 [11]. Low priced EVSE technology, which is easy to install, and affordable to operate and maintain by an average consumer, is essential for the large-scale market penetration of EVs. In addition, the long-term success of this technology is contingent on the PEVs having minimal excessive load and shift impact on the grid, especially at peak times. In a report [2] published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the exiting electric power generation infrastructure, if used at its full capacity 24 hours a day, would support up to 84% of the nation’s cars, pickup trucks and SUVs for an average daily drive of 33 miles. This mileage estimate is certainly much below what an average driver would drive his/her vehicle per day. Another report [3] by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) shows that an increased PEV penetration would significantly increase pressure on the peak generation, if no controlled charging strategy was put in place. Investigations from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show that in many regions, additional power generation facilities must be put in place and operate in evening times to recharge the EVs [12]. By all accounts, large PEV penetration will bring to the power grid enormous challenges due to the excessive and stochastic demand, and can entirely change the peak time distribution and behavior, perhaps, into a bi-modal distribution capable of exhausting primary, secondary and even reserves (spinning or non-spinning). To minimize the infrastructure upgrade costs and risks to the grid, and to ensure that power quality and reliability remain within the set standards, the demand for EV plug-ins must then be controlled and coordinated locally and at regional levels. Novel control techniques must be devised to allow for close collaboration between neighboring plug-in requestors, between neighboring communities, and between these and more central power authorities. The concept of electric drive vehicle is not new. The development of electric vehicle has been around since 19th century [13]. But due to a number of reasons and practical limitations at the time, including lower cost of gasoline compared to electricity, excessive refueling times, and abundance of gasoline, the automobile industry embraced gasoline-powered vehicles worldwide [13]. With the global warming, ever reducing reservoirs of fossil oil around the world and increasing political pressure to reduce the national dependency on foreign oil, the last decade of the 20th century witnessed major technological breakthroughs in Alternative Fueled Vehicle (AFV) technologies, including electric vehicles. With GHG emissions and carbon footprint in the minds of many more consumers and politicians, the first decade of the 21stCentury witnessed more breakthroughs with some real life experimentation and sporadic deployment of these technologies [14]. By many accounts, the second decade of the 21st Century is expected to be the time when mass volume production and popular usage of these AFV technologies, especially EV, will materialize. The current DOE request for proposals recognizes the need for major technological changes to ensure that the above national goal is realizable. Two major challenges have been identified: (1) major reduction in the cost of ownership of EVSEs, and (2) managing additional EV loads in the power grid while maintaining power quality, reliability, and affordability. We note that the two challenges are closely linked – A holistic approach to true lifecycle cost of EVSE ownership will certainly include any taxes and surcharges that can be put in place for major potential investments in the grid, and higher electricity charges in case of more frequent and longer peak periods. From a societal perspective, this cost could also include the lost GDP (computed on a local basis) and revenue for businesses at local and regional levels when the grid is no longer capable of meeting the demand and unexpected outages occur. A typical end-point electrical distribution system delivers power to a residential EVSE from the neighborhood distribution pole, as shown in Fig.1. This pole has a transformer (neighboring step-down transformer) that steps down the utility medium voltage to dual 120VAC single phase (also called 240VAC split phase). This voltage is fed through a meter into the residential load control center. The load control center consists of branch circuit breakers and distributes the power supply within various areas of the residential unit. One of the branch circuits from the load control center feeds EV charging station for the unit. An electric vehicle charger is plugged into the socket of the EV charging station and other end of this charger is connected to the vehicle during charging. Figure 1 illustrates a typical configuration of the power grid. The left side of the figure shows the power grid from the power generation to the neighboring step-down transformer, while the right side of the figure shows multiple EVs with the respective charging stations. The typical step-down transformer has an upper limit representing the maximum load that can be requested from these neighboring houses altogether (typically 24 kW). In case the total load increases beyond the supported limit, the protection system (e.g. a circuit breaker) attached to the step-down transformer gets activated automatically.« less
  • Two types of evacuated tubular solar collectors have been operated in space heating, cooling, and domestic hot water heating systems in Colorado State University Solar House I. An experimental collector from Corning Glass works supplied heat to the system from January 1977 through February 1978, and an experimental collector from the Phillips Research Laboratory, Aachen, which is currently in use, has been operating since August 1978. A flat absorber plate inside a single-walled glass tube is used in the Corning design, whereas heat is conducted through a single glass wall to an external heat exchanger plate in the Philips collector.more » The respective aperture areas are 50.0 m/sup 2/ and 44.7 m/sup 2/. Since system designs and conditions of operation were not identical, efficiencies and energy deliveries of the two evacuated tubular collectors should not be compared without recognition of these factors. But in comparison with conventional flat plate collectors, both types show substantially reduced heat losses and improved efficiency.« less
  • Safe, reliable and long term service of critical components used in fossil energy systems are major objectives of DOE's materials research and fabrication technology programs. The use of electroslag refined materials and electroslag cast components in chemical processing, petrochemical, nuclear power generation and fossil energy conversion systems has become quite common in the USSR, Japan, Western and Eastern European countries. Elecroslag cast components as lower cost alternates to forged components have performed exceedingly well in such critical applications. The aim of this program is to broaden the technology base of the novel electroslag casting process for improving its application potentialmore » in the fossil energy systems construction industry. The specific objectives of this project were to determine (a) the economics and (b) the technical factors which determine the value of using electroslag casting process for the manufacture of components of various fossil energy systems. The castings of carbon steel so produced have exhibited mechanical properties equal to and in some instances superior to similar shapes produced by conventional forging method. The possibilities of attaining lower final cost of the electroslag cast component compared to similar shaped forging appear very promising. Specification approval based on current code standards is a deterrent to acceptability of electroslag cast materials and components for many industrial applications. These and other process aspects which need further investigations are outlined.« less
  • The Idaho National Laboratory conducted testing and analysis of the General Electric (GE) smart grid capable electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), which was a deliverable from GE for the U.S. Department of Energy FOA-554. The Idaho National Laboratory has extensive knowledge and experience in testing advanced conductive and wireless charging systems though INL’s support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. This document details the findings from the EVSE operational testing conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory on the GE smart grid capable EVSE. The testing conducted on the EVSE included energy efficiency testing, SAE J1772 functionalitymore » testing, abnormal conditions testing, and charging of a plug-in vehicle.« less
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