skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Assessing hydraulic conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device

Abstract

Downstream migratory fish, including some endangered species, can be injured or killed during turbine passage. In this study an autonomous Sensor Fish device was deployed at Arrowrock Dam, Cougar Dam, and Detroit Dam to evaluate the hydraulic conditions and physical stresses that fish experienced when passing through these Francis turbines. Pressure data was used to identify the location of the Sensor Fish and to calculate the nadir pressure and the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure during turbine passage. Acceleration data was used to identify events (collisions or shear) Sensor Fish experienced and to categorize the severity level (severe, medium, and slight) of each event. The results showed that Sensor Fish experienced severe events mostly in the stay vane/wicket gate region and the runner region. In the stay vane/wicket gate region, almost all severe events were collisions. In the runner region, Sensor fish experienced both severe collisions and severe shear events. Sensor Fish data at three wicket gate opening treatments at Cougar Dam indicated that the wicket gate opening of the Francis turbine can affect the hydraulic conditions in the turbine runner region. Fewer Sensor Fish experienced severe collisions in the turbine runner region at the peak efficiencymore » than at the minimum opening and the maximum opening treatments. Comparisons between the Francis turbines at the three dams and the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam showed that higher percentage of Sensor Fish experienced severe events in the runner region when passing through Francis turbines than the AHT Kaplan turbine. The nadir pressures of the Francis turbines were lower than those of the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam. Both the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure were higher in Francis turbines than in the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam in the runner region. This study can be used to guide future laboratory studies of fish passing through Francis turbine and help the design of more fish-friendly turbines for new hydroelectric dams or the rehabilitations of existing dams.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1299440
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-113347
Journal ID: ISSN 0960-1481; WC0102000
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Renewable Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 99; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0960-1481
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Francis turbine; sensor fish; turbine evaluation; fish-friendly turbine; turbine passage; turbine operations

Citation Formats

Fu, Tao, Deng, Zhiqun Daniel, Duncan, Joanne P., Zhou, Daqing, Carlson, Thomas J., Johnson, Gary E., and Hou, Hongfei. Assessing hydraulic conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2016.08.029.
Fu, Tao, Deng, Zhiqun Daniel, Duncan, Joanne P., Zhou, Daqing, Carlson, Thomas J., Johnson, Gary E., & Hou, Hongfei. Assessing hydraulic conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device. United States. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2016.08.029.
Fu, Tao, Deng, Zhiqun Daniel, Duncan, Joanne P., Zhou, Daqing, Carlson, Thomas J., Johnson, Gary E., and Hou, Hongfei. 2016. "Assessing hydraulic conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device". United States. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2016.08.029.
@article{osti_1299440,
title = {Assessing hydraulic conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device},
author = {Fu, Tao and Deng, Zhiqun Daniel and Duncan, Joanne P. and Zhou, Daqing and Carlson, Thomas J. and Johnson, Gary E. and Hou, Hongfei},
abstractNote = {Downstream migratory fish, including some endangered species, can be injured or killed during turbine passage. In this study an autonomous Sensor Fish device was deployed at Arrowrock Dam, Cougar Dam, and Detroit Dam to evaluate the hydraulic conditions and physical stresses that fish experienced when passing through these Francis turbines. Pressure data was used to identify the location of the Sensor Fish and to calculate the nadir pressure and the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure during turbine passage. Acceleration data was used to identify events (collisions or shear) Sensor Fish experienced and to categorize the severity level (severe, medium, and slight) of each event. The results showed that Sensor Fish experienced severe events mostly in the stay vane/wicket gate region and the runner region. In the stay vane/wicket gate region, almost all severe events were collisions. In the runner region, Sensor fish experienced both severe collisions and severe shear events. Sensor Fish data at three wicket gate opening treatments at Cougar Dam indicated that the wicket gate opening of the Francis turbine can affect the hydraulic conditions in the turbine runner region. Fewer Sensor Fish experienced severe collisions in the turbine runner region at the peak efficiency than at the minimum opening and the maximum opening treatments. Comparisons between the Francis turbines at the three dams and the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam showed that higher percentage of Sensor Fish experienced severe events in the runner region when passing through Francis turbines than the AHT Kaplan turbine. The nadir pressures of the Francis turbines were lower than those of the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam. Both the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure were higher in Francis turbines than in the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam in the runner region. This study can be used to guide future laboratory studies of fish passing through Francis turbine and help the design of more fish-friendly turbines for new hydroelectric dams or the rehabilitations of existing dams.},
doi = {10.1016/j.renene.2016.08.029},
journal = {Renewable Energy},
number = C,
volume = 99,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.renene.2016.08.029

Save / Share:
  • Downstream migratory fish, including some endangered species, can be injured or killed during turbine passage. In this study an autonomous Sensor Fish device was deployed at Arrowrock Dam, Cougar Dam, and Detroit Dam to evaluate the hydraulic conditions and physical stresses that fish experienced when passing through these Francis turbines. Pressure data was used to identify the location of the Sensor Fish and to calculate the nadir pressure and the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure during turbine passage. Acceleration data was used to identify events (collisions or shear) Sensor Fish experienced and to categorize the severity levelmore » (severe, medium, and slight) of each event. The results showed that Sensor Fish experienced severe events mostly in the stay vane/wicket gate region and the runner region. In the stay vane/wicket gate region, almost all severe events were collisions. In the runner region, Sensor fish experienced both severe collisions and severe shear events. Sensor Fish data at three wicket gate opening treatments at Cougar Dam indicated that the wicket gate opening of the Francis turbine can affect the hydraulic conditions in the turbine runner region. Fewer Sensor Fish experienced severe collisions in the turbine runner region at the peak efficiency than at the minimum opening and the maximum opening treatments. Comparisons between the Francis turbines at the three dams and the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam showed that higher percentage of Sensor Fish experienced severe events in the runner region when passing through Francis turbines than the AHT Kaplan turbine. The nadir pressures of the Francis turbines were lower than those of the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam. Both the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure were higher in Francis turbines than in the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam in the runner region. This study can be used to guide future laboratory studies of fish passing through Francis turbine and help the design of more fish-friendly turbines for new hydroelectric dams or the rehabilitations of existing dams.« less
  • A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with pseudo-compressibility, an implicit formulation of finite difference, and a {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model has been developed for the Francis hydraulic runner. The viscous flow in the rotating field can be simulated well in the design flow operating condition as well as in the off-design conditions in which a strong vortex occurs due to the separation near the leading edge. Because the code employs an implicit algorithm and a wall function near the wall, it does not require a large CPU time. It can therefore be used on a small computer such as the desk-top workstation,more » and is available for use as a design tool. The same kind of algorithm that is used for compressible flows has been found to be appropriate for the simulation of complex incompressible flows in the field of turbomachinery.« less
  • Fish passage conditions through two spillways, a Francis turbine, and a regulating outlet (RO) at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions within the routes. The study was performed in July, October, and December 2009 concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimate 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe strike,more » collision, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Detroit Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 5-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine and spillway passage. However, none of the passage routes tested is safe for juvenile salmonid passage.« less
  • Fish passage conditions through a Francis turbine and a regulating outlet (RO) at Cougar Dam on the south fork of the McKenzie River in Oregon were evaluated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, using Sensor Fish devices. The objective of the study was to describe and compare passage exposure conditions, identifying potential fish injury regions encountered during passage via specific routes. The RO investigation was performed in December 2009 and the turbine evaluation in January 2010, concurrent with HI-Z balloon-tag studies by Normandeau Associates, Inc. Sensor Fish data were analyzed to estimatemore » 1) exposure conditions, particularly exposure to severe collision, strike, and shear events by passage route sub-regions; 2) differences in passage conditions between passage routes; and 3) relationships to live-fish injury and mortality data estimates. Comparison of the three passage routes evaluated at Cougar Dam indicates that the RO passage route through the 3.7-ft gate opening was relatively the safest route for fish passage under the operating conditions tested; turbine passage was the most deleterious. These observations were supported also by the survival and malady estimates obtained from live-fish testing. Injury rates were highest for turbine passage. Compared to mainstem Columbia River passage routes, none of the Cougar Dam passage routes as tested are safe for juvenile salmonid passage.« less
  • In the present paper a method is presented for the study of oscillatory problems of hydraulic generating units equipped with Francis turbines. The accurate equations of the turbine are implemented for the simulation, taking into account water hammer effect. Partial derivatives of turbine flow rate and torque with respect to head and gate opening are deduced from real measurements for the whole loading range. Speed governor dynamics are fully simulated, and the influence of torsional vibrations is studied. The vibration response of the unit to draft tube surges is investigated and the risk of excessive oscillations is evaluated. The approachmore » was developed for diagnosis of excessive vibrations of Kastraki hydro power station in Greece.« less