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Title: Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO 2 Storage

Abstract

These are the slides from a presentation at the Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Forum. The following topics are discussed: motivation, Saline Aquifer Storage, Subsurface Flow, Baseline No Brine Production, Ongoing Work, and the accompanying data visualizations.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
  2. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1296700
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-25978
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; Earth Sciences

Citation Formats

Hunter, Kelsey Anne, and Middleton, Richard. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1296700.
Hunter, Kelsey Anne, & Middleton, Richard. Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage. United States. doi:10.2172/1296700.
Hunter, Kelsey Anne, and Middleton, Richard. Wed . "Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage". United States. doi:10.2172/1296700. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1296700.
@article{osti_1296700,
title = {Offsetting Water Requirements and Stress with Enhanced Water Recovery from CO2 Storage},
author = {Hunter, Kelsey Anne and Middleton, Richard},
abstractNote = {These are the slides from a presentation at the Mickey Leland Energy Fellowship Forum. The following topics are discussed: motivation, Saline Aquifer Storage, Subsurface Flow, Baseline No Brine Production, Ongoing Work, and the accompanying data visualizations.},
doi = {10.2172/1296700},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Aug 03 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Wed Aug 03 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) operations ultimately require injecting and storing CO 2 into deep saline aquifers. Reservoir pressure typically rises as CO 2 is injected increasing the cost and risk of CCUS and decreasing viable storage within the formation. Active management of the reservoir pressure through the extraction of brine can reduce the pressurization while providing a number of benefits including increased storage capacity for CO 2, reduced risks linked to reservoir overpressure, and CO 2 plume management. Through enhanced water recovery (EWR), brine within the saline aquifer can be extracted and treated through desalinationmore » technologies which could be used to offset the water requirements for thermoelectric power plants or local water needs such as agriculture, or produce a marketable such as lithium through mineral extraction. This paper discusses modeled scenarios of CO 2 injection into the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU) formation in Wyoming with EWR. The Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), was used to model CO 2 injection with brine extraction and the corresponding pressure tradeoffs. Scenarios were compared in order to analyze how pressure management through the quantity and location of brine extraction wells can increase CO 2 storage capacity and brine extraction while reducing risks associated with over pressurization. Future research will couple a cost-benefit analysis to these simulations in order to determine if the benefit of subsurface pressure management and increase CO 2 storage capacity can outweigh multiple extraction wells with increased cost of installation and maintenance as well as treatment and/or disposal of the extracted brine.« less
  • Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO 2 enhanced oil recovery (CO 2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that producedmore » water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO 2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter ($15 to $60 per 1000 gallons), with treatment costs accounting for 13-23% of the overall cost. Results from this project suggest that produced water is a potential large source of cooling water, but treatment and transportation costs for this water are large.« less
  • Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO 2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO 2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO 2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO 2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO 2 concentration and will create CO 2 concentration gradients that drivemore » changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO 2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO 2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO 2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO 2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO 2 injection/leakage plume where CO 2 concentrations are highest. At CO 2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO 2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO 2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site-dependent results suggest a limited ability to predict the emerging dominant species for other CO 2-exposed environments. This study improves the understanding of how a subsurface microbial community may respond to conditions expected from GCS and CO 2 leakage. This is the first step for understanding how a CO 2-altered microbial community may impact injectivity, permanence of stored CO 2, and subsurface water quality. Future work with microbial communities from new subsurface sites would increase the current understanding of this project. Additionally, incorporation of metagenomic methods would increase understanding of potential microbial processes that may be prevalent in CO 2 exposed environments.« less
  • Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO 2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO 2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO 2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO 2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO 22 concentration and will create CO 2 concentration gradients that drivemore » changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO 2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO 2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO 2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO 2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO 2 injection/leakage plume where CO 2 concentrations are highest. At CO 2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO 2 plume, selected microorganisms emerged as dominant in the CO 2 exposed conditions. Results suggest that the altered microbial community was site specific and highly dependent on pH. The site-dependent results suggest a limited ability to predict the emerging dominant species for other CO 2 exposed environments. This study improves the understanding of how a subsurface microbial community may respond to conditions expected from GCS and CO 2 leakage. This is the first step for understanding how a CO 2-altered microbial community may impact injectivity, permanence of stored CO 2, and subsurface water quality. Future work with microbial communities from new subsurface sites would increase the current understanding of this project. Additionally, incorporation of metagenomic methods would increase understanding of potential microbial processes that may be prevalent in CO 2 exposed environments.« less
  • This report describes an instrumentation system to monitor a miscible displacement pilot flood under carefully controlled conditions. The primary focus is on CO/sub 2/ flooding but the results apply equally well to other types of miscible floods. Included are discussions of the physical processes in a CO/sub 2/ flood, a review of existing CO/sub 2/ floods, instrumentation available, site selection and characterization, operation of the flood, simulator evaluation, and cost estimates for this type of project. Throughout the report it is emphasized that determination of residual oil saturation before and after the flood is crucial to evaluation of the results.