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Title: Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests

Abstract

High explosives are energetic materials that release their chemical energy in a short interval of time. They are able to generate extreme heat and pressure by a shock driven chemical decomposition reaction, which makes them valuable tools that must be understood. This study investigated the accuracy and performance of two Los Alamos National Laboratory hydrodynamic codes, which are used to determine the behavior of explosives within a variety of systems: xRAGE which utilizes an Eulerian mesh, and FLAG with utilizes a Lagrangian mesh. Various programmed and reactive burn models within both codes were tested using a copper cylinder expansion test. The test was based on a recent experimental setup which contained the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9404. Detonation velocity versus time curves for this explosive were obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The modeled results from each of the burn models tested were then compared to one another and to the experimental results. This study validate

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1296691
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-26076
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; xRAGE; FLAG; cylinder test; Gurney Velocity

Citation Formats

Harrier, Danielle, and Andersen, Kyle Richard. Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1296691.
Harrier, Danielle, & Andersen, Kyle Richard. Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests. United States. doi:10.2172/1296691.
Harrier, Danielle, and Andersen, Kyle Richard. 2016. "Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests". United States. doi:10.2172/1296691. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1296691.
@article{osti_1296691,
title = {Analysis of xRAGE and flag high explosive burn models with PBX 9404 cylinder tests},
author = {Harrier, Danielle and Andersen, Kyle Richard},
abstractNote = {High explosives are energetic materials that release their chemical energy in a short interval of time. They are able to generate extreme heat and pressure by a shock driven chemical decomposition reaction, which makes them valuable tools that must be understood. This study investigated the accuracy and performance of two Los Alamos National Laboratory hydrodynamic codes, which are used to determine the behavior of explosives within a variety of systems: xRAGE which utilizes an Eulerian mesh, and FLAG with utilizes a Lagrangian mesh. Various programmed and reactive burn models within both codes were tested using a copper cylinder expansion test. The test was based on a recent experimental setup which contained the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9404. Detonation velocity versus time curves for this explosive were obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The modeled results from each of the burn models tested were then compared to one another and to the experimental results. This study validate},
doi = {10.2172/1296691},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

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  • Cylinder test experiments using aged PBX-9404 were recently conducted. When compared to similar historical tests using the same materials, but different diagnostics, the data indicate that PBX 9404 imparts less energy to surrounding copper. The purpose of this work was to simulate historical and recent cylinder tests using the Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, FLAG, and identify any differences in the energetic behavior of the material. Nine experiments spanning approximately 4.5 decades were simulated, and radial wall expansions and velocities were compared. Equation-of-state parameters were adjusted to obtain reasonable matches with experimental data. Pressure-volume isentropes were integrated, and resultant energies at specificmore » volume expansions were compared. FLAG simulations matched to experimental data indicate energetic changes of approximately -0.57% to -0.78% per decade.« less
  • The models used to calculate the programmed burn high-explosive lighting times for two- and three-dimensions in the FLAG code are described. FLAG uses an unstructured polyhedra grid. The calculations were compared to exact solutions for a square in two dimensions and for a cube in three dimensions. The maximum error was 3.95 percent in two dimensions and 4.84 percent in three dimensions. The high explosive lighting time model described has the advantage that only one cell at a time needs to be considered.
  • PAGOSA1 has several different burn models used to model high explosive detonation. Two of these, Multi-Shock Forest Fire and Surf, are capable of modeling shock initiation. Accurately calculating shock initiation of a high explosive is important because it is a mechanism for detonation in many accident scenarios (i.e. fragment impact). Comparing the models to pop-plot data give confidence that the models are accurately calculating detonation or lack thereof. To compare the performance of these models, pop-plots2 were created from simulations where one two cm block of PBX 9502 collides with another block of PBX 9502.
  • Numerical material-response models developed from static laboratory material-response measurements and from dynamic-explosive test data are described. Material models were first specified using only laboratory test data obtained by Terra Tek. Predictions using this model were then compared to dynamic stress and velocity data taken by SRI International in very small (3/8 gm PETN) explosive shots, and by Sandia Laboratories in a much larger scale (2000 lb. TNT) ONE-TON test. All laboratory measurements and SRI shots used tuff samples taken from the Sandia ONE-TON test site located in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site. A new material model was constructed tomore » agree as closely as possible with the SRI data and a second prediction for the ONE-TON event was made. Overall, the ONE-TON predictions were quite good if the expected bias in air-void content was considered, with the model using the SRI results doing slightly better. The comparisons highlighted concerns about the measured air-void content and uncertainties in the strain-rate dependence of material properties. Models including dilatation and viscoelastic effects were developed, and predictions from these models are compared with the test data. The viscoelastic model was quite successful at both the SRI and ONE-TON scale. The dilatation model had some encouraging features but requires additional data and development.« less