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Title: Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology

Abstract

This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. Amore » sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1295389
Report Number(s):
NREL/TP-5J00-66334
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; erosion; tribology

Citation Formats

Miller, David C., Muller, Matt T., and Simpson, Lin J.. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1295389.
Miller, David C., Muller, Matt T., & Simpson, Lin J.. Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology. United States. doi:10.2172/1295389.
Miller, David C., Muller, Matt T., and Simpson, Lin J.. 2016. "Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology". United States. doi:10.2172/1295389. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1295389.
@article{osti_1295389,
title = {Review of Artificial Abrasion Test Methods for PV Module Technology},
author = {Miller, David C. and Muller, Matt T. and Simpson, Lin J.},
abstractNote = {This review is intended to identify the method or methods--and the basic details of those methods--that might be used to develop an artificial abrasion test. Methods used in the PV literature were compared with their closest implementation in existing standards. Also, meetings of the International PV Quality Assurance Task Force Task Group 12-3 (TG12-3, which is concerned with coated glass) were used to identify established test methods. Feedback from the group, which included many of the authors from the PV literature, included insights not explored within the literature itself. The combined experience and examples from the literature are intended to provide an assessment of the present industry practices and an informed path forward. Recommendations toward artificial abrasion test methods are then identified based on the experiences in the literature and feedback from the PV community. The review here is strictly focused on abrasion. Assessment methods, including optical performance (e.g., transmittance or reflectance), surface energy, and verification of chemical composition were not examined. Methods of artificially soiling PV modules or other specimens were not examined. The weathering of artificial or naturally soiled specimens (which may ultimately include combined temperature and humidity, thermal cycling and ultraviolet light) were also not examined. A sense of the purpose or application of an abrasion test method within the PV industry should, however, be evident from the literature.},
doi = {10.2172/1295389},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Technical Report:

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  • Procedures are described for evaluating the energy impact of renewable energy resource projects. Four recommendations are made: to establish a common set of guidelines for evaluating the energy impact of federal energy grant programs; use a simplified evaluation approach in the interim until the guidelines are set; develop additional project evaluation methods; and analyze the non-energy impacts of the Appropriate Technology Program. Previously used evaluation approaches are discussed as regards energy impact definition, sample selection, project evaluation, and program impact analysis. Methods are described for determining direct energy impacts of: wind electric, hydroelectric, anaerobic digestion (biomass); solar water heating andmore » space heating; passive solar; weatherization/conservation; and geothermal space and water heating technologies. The methodology for estimating the cost-effectiveness of an energy system is presented. Tables of load collector ratios and solar savings fraction for different passive systems are supplied.« less
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  • The report covers the OB/OD field tests A, B, and C using the methodology and technology developed in the BangBox (BB) test for use on the fixed-wing aircraft (FWAC). Field test A was a checkout of the equipment and sampling selected from the BB test, and the development of procedures for sampling the TNT detonation crater soil, and the particle fallout In the surrounding area. Triple-base propellant was also burned in pans with the area sampled to 30-m with fallout pans. The analytes in both the air emission and the soil were identify and quantified. Field test B used TNTmore » as the explosive and manufacturing residue as the burn material. Air sampling with the FWAC and soil sampling provided estimates of emission factors (EF) and soil contaminates that were detected above background levels. Suspended TNT detonations and manufacturing residue bums were also characterized for emission products. Phase C test using refinements in sampling and analysis from the previous phases provided data for TNT, composition B, explosive D, and RDX detonations and manufacturing residue single-base (M1,M6) propellant bums. The EF data from the TNT field tests were examined and compared with BB data; the results were comparable in the analytes detected and the level of analytes detected. The results indicate an efficiency for the detonation >92 percent (Continued on reverse) Opening burning; open detonation;OB/OD; TNT; Double base propellant; manufacturers residue propellant; air emissions; thermal treatment; carbon balance; and emission factor.« less