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Title: A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions

Abstract

This is the second in a pair of papers discussing a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected during 10 years (2001–2010) of Cluster observations. In the first paper, an analysis of EMIC wave properties (i.e., wave power, polarization, normal angle, and wave propagation angle) is presented in both the magnetic latitude (MLAT)-distance as well as magnetic local time (MLT)-L frames. In addition, this paper focuses on the distribution of EMIC wave-associated plasma conditions as well as two EMIC wave generation proxies (the electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio proxy and the linear theory proxy) in these same frames. Based on the distributions of hot H + anisotropy, electron and hot H+ density measurements, hot H + parallel plasma beta, and the calculated wave generation proxies, three source regions of EMIC waves appear to exist: (1) the well-known overlap between cold plasmaspheric or plume populations with hot anisotropic ring current populations in the postnoon to dusk MLT region; (2) regions all along the dayside magnetosphere at high L shells related to dayside magnetospheric compression and drift shell splitting; and (3) off-equator regions possibly associated with the Shabansky orbits in the dayside magnetosphere.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]
  1. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Univ. of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)
  2. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)
  3. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)
  4. Max-Plank-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)
  5. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom)
  6. Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Uppsala (Sweden)
  7. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1291230
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-21147
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-9380
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; Heliospheric and Magnetospheric Physics

Citation Formats

Allen, R. C., Zhang, J. -C., Kistler, L. M., Spence, H. E., Lin, R. -L., Klecker, B., Dunlop, M. W., Andre, M., and Jordanova, Vania Koleva. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/2016JA022541.
Allen, R. C., Zhang, J. -C., Kistler, L. M., Spence, H. E., Lin, R. -L., Klecker, B., Dunlop, M. W., Andre, M., & Jordanova, Vania Koleva. A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions. United States. doi:10.1002/2016JA022541.
Allen, R. C., Zhang, J. -C., Kistler, L. M., Spence, H. E., Lin, R. -L., Klecker, B., Dunlop, M. W., Andre, M., and Jordanova, Vania Koleva. 2016. "A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions". United States. doi:10.1002/2016JA022541. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1291230.
@article{osti_1291230,
title = {A statistical study of EMIC waves observed by Cluster: 2. Associated plasma conditions},
author = {Allen, R. C. and Zhang, J. -C. and Kistler, L. M. and Spence, H. E. and Lin, R. -L. and Klecker, B. and Dunlop, M. W. and Andre, M. and Jordanova, Vania Koleva},
abstractNote = {This is the second in a pair of papers discussing a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected during 10 years (2001–2010) of Cluster observations. In the first paper, an analysis of EMIC wave properties (i.e., wave power, polarization, normal angle, and wave propagation angle) is presented in both the magnetic latitude (MLAT)-distance as well as magnetic local time (MLT)-L frames. In addition, this paper focuses on the distribution of EMIC wave-associated plasma conditions as well as two EMIC wave generation proxies (the electron plasma frequency to gyrofrequency ratio proxy and the linear theory proxy) in these same frames. Based on the distributions of hot H+ anisotropy, electron and hot H+ density measurements, hot H+ parallel plasma beta, and the calculated wave generation proxies, three source regions of EMIC waves appear to exist: (1) the well-known overlap between cold plasmaspheric or plume populations with hot anisotropic ring current populations in the postnoon to dusk MLT region; (2) regions all along the dayside magnetosphere at high L shells related to dayside magnetospheric compression and drift shell splitting; and (3) off-equator regions possibly associated with the Shabansky orbits in the dayside magnetosphere.},
doi = {10.1002/2016JA022541},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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  • Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are an important mechanism for particle energization and losses inside the magnetosphere. In order to better understand the effects of these waves on particle dynamics, detailed information about the occurrence rate, wave power, ellipticity, normal angle, energy propagation angle distributions, and local plasma parameters are required. Previous statistical studies have used in situ observations to investigate the distribution of these parameters in the magnetic local time versus L-shell (MLT-L) frame within a limited magnetic latitude (MLAT) range. In our study, we present a statistical analysis of EMIC wave properties using 10 years (2001–2010) of datamore » from Cluster, totaling 25,431 min of wave activity. Due to the polar orbit of Cluster, we are able to investigate EMIC waves at all MLATs and MLTs. This allows us to further investigate the MLAT dependence of various wave properties inside different MLT sectors and further explore the effects of Shabansky orbits on EMIC wave generation and propagation. Thus, the statistical analysis is presented in two papers. OUr paper focuses on the wave occurrence distribution as well as the distribution of wave properties. The companion paper focuses on local plasma parameters during wave observations as well as wave generation proxies.« less
  • Since electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere play a crucial role in the dynamic losses of relativistic electrons and energetic protons and in the ion heating, it is important to pursue a comprehensive understanding of the EMIC wave dispersion relation under realistic circumstances, which can shed significant light on the generation, amplification, and propagation of magnetospheric EMIC waves. The full kinetic linear dispersion relation is implemented in the present study to evaluate the linear growth of EMIC waves in a multi-ion (H{sup +}, He{sup +}, and O{sup +}) magnetospheric plasma that also consists of hot ring currentmore » protons. Introduction of anisotropic hot protons strongly modifies the EMIC wave dispersion surface and can result in the simultaneous growth of H{sup +}-, He{sup +}-, and O{sup +}-band EMIC emissions. Our parametric analysis demonstrates that an increase in the hot proton concentration can produce the generation of H{sup +}- and He{sup +}-band EMIC waves with higher possibility. While the excitation of H{sup +}-band emissions requires relatively larger temperature anisotropy of hot protons, He{sup +}-band emissions are more likely to be triggered in the plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume where the background plasma is denser. In addition, the generation of He{sup +}-band waves is more sensitive to the variation of proton temperature than H{sup +}-band waves. Increase of cold heavy ion (He{sup +} and O{sup +}) density increases the H{sup +} cutoff frequency and therefore widens the frequency coverage of the stop band above the He{sup +} gyrofrequency, leading to a significant damping of H{sup +}-band EMIC waves. In contrast, O{sup +}-band EMIC waves characteristically exhibit the temporal growth much weaker than the other two bands, regardless of all considered variables, suggesting that O{sup +}-band emissions occur at a rate much lower than H{sup +}- and He{sup +}-band emissions, which is consistent with the observations.« less
  • We show evidence that left-hand polarised electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere. Our unique set of ground and satellite observations shows coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keY and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The coincident precipitation was produced by wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves near the plasmapause. The estimation of pitch angle diffusion coefficients supports that the observed EMIC waves caused coincident precipitation ofboth ions and relativistic electrons. This study clarifies that ions with energies of tens of ke V affect the evolutionmore » of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts via cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's.« less
  • We perform a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected by the Van Allen Probes mission to investigate the spatial distribution of their occurrence, wave power, ellipticity, and normal angle. The Van Allen Probes have been used which allow us to explore the inner magnetosphere (1.1 to 5.8 RE). Magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes are used to identify EMIC wave events for the first 22 months of the mission operation (8 September 2012 to 30 June 2014). EMIC waves are examined in H⁺-,more » He⁺-, and O⁺-bands. Over 700 EMIC wave events have been identified over the three different wave bands (265 H⁺-band events, 438 He⁺-band events, and 68 O⁺-band events). EMIC wave events are observed between L = 2 – 8, with over 140 EMIC wave events observed below L = 4. The results show that H⁺-band EMIC waves have two peak magnetic local time (MLT) occurrence regions: pre-noon (09:00 < MLT ≤ 12:00) and afternoon (15:00 < MLT ≤ 17:00) sectors. He⁺-band EMIC waves feature an overall stronger dayside occurrence. O⁺-band EMIC waves have one peak region located in the morning sector at lower L shells (L < 4). He⁺-band EMIC waves average the highest wave power overall (>0.1 nT²/Hz), especially in the afternoon sector. Ellipticity observations reveal that linearly polarized EMIC waves dominate in lower L shells.« less
  • We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12–14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervalsmore » of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12–13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He + electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13–14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst <–100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.« less