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Title: Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)

Abstract

This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical tomore » our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not suffice. Current market penetration of new engine technologies is simply too slow—it must be dramatically accelerated. These challenges present a unique opportunity to marshal U.S. leadership in science-based simulation to develop predictive computational design tools for use by the transportation industry. The use of predictive simulation tools for enhancing combustion engine performance will shrink engine development timescales, accelerate time to market, and reduce development costs, while ensuring the timely achievement of energy security and emissions targets and enhancing U.S. industrial competitiveness. In 2007 Cummins achieved a milestone in engine design by bringing a diesel engine to market solely with computer modeling and analysis tools. The only testing was after the fact to confirm performance. Cummins achieved a reduction in development time and cost. As important, they realized a more robust design, improved fuel economy, and met all environmental and customer constraints. This important first step demonstrates the potential for computational engine design. But, the daunting complexity of engine combustion and the revolutionary increases in efficiency needed require the development of simulation codes and computation platforms far more advanced than those available today. Based on these needs, a Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE) convened over 60 U.S. leaders in the engine combustion field from industry, academia, and national laboratories to focus on two critical areas of advanced simulation, as identified by the U.S. automotive and engine industries. First, modern engines require precise control of the injection of a broad variety of fuels that is far more subtle than achievable to date and that can be obtained only through predictive modeling and simulation. Second, the simulation, understanding, and control of these stochastic in-cylinder combustion processes lie on the critical path to realizing more efficient engines with greater power density. Fuel sprays set the initial conditions for combustion in essentially all future transportation engines; yet today designers primarily use empirical methods that limit the efficiency achievable. Three primary spray topics were identified as focus areas in the workshop: The fuel delivery system, which includes fuel manifolds and internal injector flow, The multi-phase fuel–air mixing in the combustion chamber of the engine, and The heat transfer and fluid interactions with cylinder walls. Current understanding and modeling capability of stochastic processes in engines remains limited and prevents designers from achieving significantly higher fuel economy. To improve this situation, the workshop participants identified three focus areas for stochastic processes: Improve fundamental understanding that will help to establish and characterize the physical causes of stochastic events, Develop physics-based simulation models that are accurate and sensitive enough to capture performance-limiting variability, and Quantify and manage uncertainty in model parameters and boundary conditions. Improved models and understanding in these areas will allow designers to develop engines with reduced design margins and that operate reliably in more efficient regimes. All of these areas require improved basic understanding, high-fidelity model development, and rigorous model validation. These advances will greatly reduce the uncertainties in current models and improve understanding of sprays and fuel–air mixture preparation that limit the investigation and development of advanced combustion technologies. The two strategic focus areas have distinctive characteristics but are inherently coupled. Coordinated activities in basic experiments, fundamental simulations, and engineering-level model development and validation can be used to successfully address all of the topics identified in the PreSICE workshop. The outcome will be: New and deeper understanding of the relevant fundamental physical and chemical processes in advanced combustion technologies, Implementation of this understanding into models and simulation tools appropriate for both exploration and design, and Sufficient validation with uncertainty quantification to provide confidence in the simulation results. These outcomes will provide the design tools for industry to reduce development time by up to 30% and improve engine efficiencies by 30% to 50%. The improved efficiencies applied to the national mix of transportation applications have the potential to save over 5 million barrels of oil per day, a current cost savings of $500 million per day.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Cummins, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
  3. Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science
  4. Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
  5. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC) (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1291137
Resource Type:
Program Document
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Citation Formats

Eckerle, Wayne, Rutland, Chris, Rohlfing, Eric, Singh, Gurpreet, and McIlroy, Andrew. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE). United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.2172/1291137.
Eckerle, Wayne, Rutland, Chris, Rohlfing, Eric, Singh, Gurpreet, & McIlroy, Andrew. Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE). United States. doi:10.2172/1291137.
Eckerle, Wayne, Rutland, Chris, Rohlfing, Eric, Singh, Gurpreet, and McIlroy, Andrew. Thu . "Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)". United States. doi:10.2172/1291137. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1291137.
@article{osti_1291137,
title = {Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE)},
author = {Eckerle, Wayne and Rutland, Chris and Rohlfing, Eric and Singh, Gurpreet and McIlroy, Andrew},
abstractNote = {This report is based on a SC/EERE Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE), held March 3, 2011, to determine strategic focus areas that will accelerate innovation in engine design to meet national goals in transportation efficiency. The U.S. has reached a pivotal moment when pressures of energy security, climate change, and economic competitiveness converge. Oil prices remain volatile and have exceeded $100 per barrel twice in five years. At these prices, the U.S. spends $1 billion per day on imported oil to meet our energy demands. Because the transportation sector accounts for two-thirds of our petroleum use, energy security is deeply entangled with our transportation needs. At the same time, transportation produces one-quarter of the nation’s carbon dioxide output. Increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines is a technologically proven and cost-effective approach to dramatically improving the fuel economy of the nation’s fleet of vehicles in the near- to mid-term, with the corresponding benefits of reducing our dependence on foreign oil and reducing carbon emissions. Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to utilize renewable fuels, internal combustion engines—including those in hybrid vehicles—will continue to be critical to our transportation infrastructure for decades. Achievable advances in engine technology can improve the fuel economy of automobiles by over 50% and trucks by over 30%. Achieving these goals will require the transportation sector to compress its product development cycle for cleaner, more efficient engine technologies by 50% while simultaneously exploring innovative design space. Concurrently, fuels will also be evolving, adding another layer of complexity and further highlighting the need for efficient product development cycles. Current design processes, using “build and test” prototype engineering, will not suffice. Current market penetration of new engine technologies is simply too slow—it must be dramatically accelerated. These challenges present a unique opportunity to marshal U.S. leadership in science-based simulation to develop predictive computational design tools for use by the transportation industry. The use of predictive simulation tools for enhancing combustion engine performance will shrink engine development timescales, accelerate time to market, and reduce development costs, while ensuring the timely achievement of energy security and emissions targets and enhancing U.S. industrial competitiveness. In 2007 Cummins achieved a milestone in engine design by bringing a diesel engine to market solely with computer modeling and analysis tools. The only testing was after the fact to confirm performance. Cummins achieved a reduction in development time and cost. As important, they realized a more robust design, improved fuel economy, and met all environmental and customer constraints. This important first step demonstrates the potential for computational engine design. But, the daunting complexity of engine combustion and the revolutionary increases in efficiency needed require the development of simulation codes and computation platforms far more advanced than those available today. Based on these needs, a Workshop to Identify Research Needs and Impacts in Predictive Simulation for Internal Combustion Engines (PreSICE) convened over 60 U.S. leaders in the engine combustion field from industry, academia, and national laboratories to focus on two critical areas of advanced simulation, as identified by the U.S. automotive and engine industries. First, modern engines require precise control of the injection of a broad variety of fuels that is far more subtle than achievable to date and that can be obtained only through predictive modeling and simulation. Second, the simulation, understanding, and control of these stochastic in-cylinder combustion processes lie on the critical path to realizing more efficient engines with greater power density. Fuel sprays set the initial conditions for combustion in essentially all future transportation engines; yet today designers primarily use empirical methods that limit the efficiency achievable. Three primary spray topics were identified as focus areas in the workshop: The fuel delivery system, which includes fuel manifolds and internal injector flow, The multi-phase fuel–air mixing in the combustion chamber of the engine, and The heat transfer and fluid interactions with cylinder walls. Current understanding and modeling capability of stochastic processes in engines remains limited and prevents designers from achieving significantly higher fuel economy. To improve this situation, the workshop participants identified three focus areas for stochastic processes: Improve fundamental understanding that will help to establish and characterize the physical causes of stochastic events, Develop physics-based simulation models that are accurate and sensitive enough to capture performance-limiting variability, and Quantify and manage uncertainty in model parameters and boundary conditions. Improved models and understanding in these areas will allow designers to develop engines with reduced design margins and that operate reliably in more efficient regimes. All of these areas require improved basic understanding, high-fidelity model development, and rigorous model validation. These advances will greatly reduce the uncertainties in current models and improve understanding of sprays and fuel–air mixture preparation that limit the investigation and development of advanced combustion technologies. The two strategic focus areas have distinctive characteristics but are inherently coupled. Coordinated activities in basic experiments, fundamental simulations, and engineering-level model development and validation can be used to successfully address all of the topics identified in the PreSICE workshop. The outcome will be: New and deeper understanding of the relevant fundamental physical and chemical processes in advanced combustion technologies, Implementation of this understanding into models and simulation tools appropriate for both exploration and design, and Sufficient validation with uncertainty quantification to provide confidence in the simulation results. These outcomes will provide the design tools for industry to reduce development time by up to 30% and improve engine efficiencies by 30% to 50%. The improved efficiencies applied to the national mix of transportation applications have the potential to save over 5 million barrels of oil per day, a current cost savings of $500 million per day.},
doi = {10.2172/1291137},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {3}
}

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